Since the discovery of the phytohormonal system for the regulation of physiological processes in a plant, the search for substances that can influence the processes of life of plants in the direction necessary for a person has not stopped. These substances include amino acids.
Amino acids are organic nitrogenous compounds that are the most active participants in almost all aspects of plant metabolism. At the moment, 20 basic (or proteinogenic) amino acids are known that are involved in the synthesis of proteins in a living organism, and more than 500 specific amino acids found in individual protein molecules. According to their configuration, amino acids are divided into two types: D and L forms, and plants can assimilate and use mainly L-forms of amino acids in the process of metabolism.
Physiological role in plants
All proteinogenic amino acids serve as building blocks in the construction of polypeptides, and also participate in specific reactions of plant metabolism. The regulatory role of amino acids is to move the biochemical process to a new level with a new reaction rate and more beneficial energy supply. Direct plant impacts include modeling nitrogen uptake and assimilation. Equally important is the function of amino acids to act as precursors, activators, or structural components of key plant hormones. A wide variety of compounds involved in plant defense reactions are also synthesized during the secondary metabolism of amino acids. A number of these compounds constitute a constitutive basis for plant protection, others are produced in response to specific abiotic and biotic stresses.
Plants synthesize amino acids by complex biochemical processes from absorbed nitrate and ammonium nitrogen. Since the synthesis process is energetically expensive, it is more profitable for the plant to absorb free amino acids from the external environment. Usually, amino acids come through the root system from the rhizosphere, however, in agriculture, the use of amino acid preparations through foliar feeding is becoming popular.
Amino acid-based preparations are produced by chemical and microbiological synthesis, or as a result of protein hydrolysis. In the process of hydrolysis, a wide range of basic amino acids and a large number of other auxiliary substances are obtained. Proteins of animal and vegetable origin are used as raw materials. During the hydrolysis of animal raw materials, in addition to amino acids, a lot of ballast products are formed, at the same time, the hydrolysis of plant raw materials does not have such problems.
From an agronomic point of view, the use of amino acid preparations, in addition to general growth stimulation, is relevant when plants are exposed to various stress factors. These can be abiotic (low and high temperatures, moisture deficit, hypoxia, salinity), biotic (exposure to pathogens and pests) and anthropogenic stresses (phytotoxicity of pesticides, burns from improper use of herbicides, etc.). In this case, amino acids act as immunomodulators of plants and direct participants in all protective reactions of metabolism. Exogenous amino acids that enter plants through leaf processing are immediately included in biochemical processes. Under stressful conditions, this allows the plant to save significant energy resources for the primary synthesis of these amino acids, redistributing this energy to the mechanisms of combating stress.
Bion Amino is a hydralizate of plant origin, which includes a set of 20 basic L-form amino acids, polypeptides and oligosaccharides. The key feature of the drug is the RHPP peptide, which plays the role of an activator of the growth of the root system. On potatoes, Bion Amino is used as a growth stimulant from the very beginning of the growing season.
Today, the farmer has the opportunity to influence the future potato harvest even before planting. The use of various stimulants allows you to "spur" the speed of the initial growth of plants. Tuber processing Bion Amino in dosages of 0,1-0,3 l / t, it forms a reserve of free amino acids on the tuber shell. The pool of available amino acids, without the expenditure of energy for their synthesis, provides a more efficient energy management of the seedling, transferring growth activity to a new level. Amino acids optimize the primary metabolism of a germinating plant, improve the protective and adaptive responses of potatoes to internal and external stimuli. And the presence of the RHPP growth peptide will ensure the formation of a powerful root system in the early stages of growth.
As sheet processing Bion Amino can be applied throughout the entire growth of potatoes with a consumption rate of 1,0 - 2,0 l / ha. Such a technique will stimulate the general level of metabolism, activating the main biochemical processes: respiration, photosynthesis, nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism, the synthesis of various organic compounds and phytohormones. The use of amino acids during the period when the plant is under the influence of various stresses will provide the synthesis of many compounds involved in plant defense reactions. Free amino acids from the outside will act as precursors of secondary protective compounds, as signaling molecules to activate the genes responsible for the defense reaction, and also activate the process of restoring the growth activity of a vegetative plant.
Plants can independently cope with unfavorable environmental restrictions, while sacrificing agronomic indicators, primarily productivity. The strategy of adapting one's metabolism to stressful conditions includes the accumulation of various amino acid compositions. And therefore, one of the most effective measures to increase the viability of plants in the agroecosystem during the growing season is the use of exogenous amino acids as a source of an easily accessible substrate for the entire biochemistry of a plant.
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