What opportunities does potato breeding offer and how to replace expensive imported varieties and hybrids? This became the main topic of the scientific and production seminar held at the South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato (YUNIISK). Scientists presented new varieties of potatoes and technologies for protecting plants from diseases and pests.
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Head of the Institute Nikolay Glaz presented potato varieties developed by UUNIISK breeders that are currently undergoing state varietal testing.
“One of the main areas of selection for us is the creation of varieties suitable for industrial processing,” he said. - For example, the new variety “Zakhar” shows good preliminary results in variety trials. There is a real hope that it will be regionalized. And the “chestnut” variety was submitted to the state test in 2018. Among its advantages is a high yield, since it is an intensive-type variety.
According to scientists, this year a new variety “albatross” is being prepared for testing at the State Inspectorate. Its main advantage is resistance to cancer, nematode and other plant diseases. In addition, he has a record yield of 50 tons per hectare, high starchiness - 18%, excellent taste and preservation.
“Among the main finds of modern selection is the creation of varieties with colored peels and dyed tubers,” says Nikolai Glaz. - Our breeders also bred such a variety of potatoes, we plan to transfer it for testing in the near future.
In recent years, such varieties as “box body”, “bracelet”, “cavalier”, and “itzil” have been introduced to UNIISK. The very first results of variety tests showed their high resistance to diseases and good preservation.
High seed quality of planting potatoes is ensured by meristemic improvement using the so-called technology of microclonal propagation from a piece of leaf, which allows you to get rid of germs and plant diseases.
However, in general, varietal renewal is a serious problem for potato growers in the region. Today, 25 varieties of potatoes are grown in the Chelyabinsk region, of which only five are zoned for our climatic zone. Basically, it is the Nevsky variety, in recent years it has been seriously pressed by the Dutch and German Red Scarlett, Romano, and Rosar. Domestic varieties bred at YUNIISK still occupy a tiny fraction of plantings: for example, “Taras” - 22 ha, “Spiridon” - only 5 ha.
According to farmers, it is necessary to increase the production of potato seeds of domestic selection, since foreign hybrids quickly degenerate and seed material has to be purchased again abroad. A start has been made: scientists have developed a whole range of new varieties that are in no way inferior to foreign ones.
In the Chelyabinsk region, potato production is concentrated mainly in the suburban areas of Argayash, Sosnovsky and Krasnoarmeysky. As reported Head of the Department of Plant Production and Small Businesses of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Region Yuri ZasypkinAccording to the forecast, this year about 120 thousand tons of potatoes will be grown. This, taking into account products imported from neighboring regions, is quite enough to ensure the social sphere and the population of the region. Last year, only potato-growing organizations and farms grew and harvested 146 thousand tons of potatoes.
- Over the past 20 years, this is a record crop for the region, - said the acting First Deputy Minister of Agriculture of the region Alexander Zavalishchin. - Of this volume, 40 thousand tons of potatoes are exported for sale outside the region. With an increase in production, our farmers are faced with the problem of selling tubers. This means that buyers, retail chains are not happy with something. It is necessary to analyze the situation on the market and make a request for scientists to create new varieties that are in demand on the market.
A source: https://up74.ru/