A guarantee of a plentiful and high-quality crop is the proper preparation of potato seeds in the spring. The preparation of potato seeds must begin with a tuber analysis, which is carried out 30-40 days before planting, as well as before sale in order to find hidden forms of diseases and to obtain a high-quality and good harvest.
Failure to conduct tuber analysis on the part of both individuals and medium and large agricultural producers can lead to the spread of various diseases of potato seeds and harm the soil and the environment.
Tuber analysis of seed potatoes is carried out in the following sequence:
- determination of the presence of land and impurities;
- determination of the size of tubers;
- determination of the presence of tubers of other botanical varieties;
- determination of the presence of tubers with external and internal signs of disease damage; damage and defects;
The result of tuber analysis is documented by acts of tuber analysis of seed potatoes. For planting, seed potatoes of varieties included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements Approved for Use are used.
Seed potatoes of the OS, ES, and RS categories in terms of the quality of tubers and the quality of planting by appearance must meet the requirements for the respective categories. Seed potato tubers must be healthy, whole, with a firm peel, shape and color typical of the corresponding botanical variety, dry, not sprouted (in the spring, the presence of tubers with sprouts no more than 5 mm is allowed).
In seed potatoes, pests, diseases, and weed seeds that are quarantined for the Russian Federation in accordance with the list approved in the established order are not allowed. In seed potatoes, the presence of tubers with signs of "suffocation", frostbitten, with burns, ugly, with growths and easily breaking off growths, cut, crushed, with a peeled peel "more than ¼ surface of the tuber" is not allowed.
In seed potatoes, the presence of tubers is allowed, in percentage terms, no more than:
- with glandular spotting and darkening of the flesh "with the defeat of more than 25% of the longitudinal section of the tuber" - 5%,
- with mechanical damage “cuts, cracks, dents in the tissue of tubers with a depth of more than 5 mm and a length of more than 10 mm” - 5%,
- with damage by agricultural pests without damaging the eyes with “wireworms - more than three moves, rodents, grafts and scoops” - 2%,
- the presence of soft tubers or shriveled as a result of infection with silver scab is not allowed,
- infection with powdery scab is not allowed.
(Author: public relations specialist of the Rosselkhoznadzor Directorate for the Republic of Mordovia and the Penza Region Larisa Yakushkina).
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