EUROCHEM FERTILIZERS IN POTATO CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY
Potatoes are one of the most important food, fodder and industrial crops, but comfortable conditions for its cultivation are not everywhere. Every grower wants to get a good harvest. A properly selected mineral nutrition scheme will help to achieve high productivity and quality of potatoes.
The formation of a high-quality potato crop is a laborious process and depends on the physiological characteristics of the culture. Unlike cereals, potatoes need more mineral nutrients, which is determined by the increased productivity of the plant and the relatively weak development of its root system.
To obtain a full crop (200-250 kg / ha), it is necessary to provide about 125 kg of nitrogen, 50 kg of phosphorus and 230 kg of potassium to the soil. Potatoes consume large amounts of calcium (70 kg) and magnesium (30 kg), and a small amount of copper, zinc and manganese should also be present in the nutritional scheme of the culture. It will not be possible to provide the plant with all the elements at the same time, since potatoes need them at different phases of growth.
Nitrogen, as the main structural element of the plant, is necessary in the early stages. It enhances the growth of tops, prolongs the period of vegetation and physiological maturation of tubers. Phosphorus is important when nutrition through the root system is difficult. In a period of low temperatures or at an unfavorable soil pH, optimal phosphorus nutrition ensures the physiological maturity of the tubers. Potatoes need more potassium than potassium, which at the final stage of the growing season promotes the outflow of nutrients from tops to tubers. Its effect largely depends on the form of potash fertilizers (for example, chlorine-containing fertilizers worsen the quality of potatoes), so when choosing a product, you should pay attention to the content of this element in the composition.
Why is potato “afraid” of chlorine? This chemical element increases the saturation of tissues with water, thereby delaying the development and maturation of tubers. Chlorine ions inhibit the activity of enzymes involved in the outflow of assimilation products from leaves to tubers, as a result of which starch is delayed in them. For this reason, EuroChem specialists recommend that chlorine-containing potash fertilizers be applied for treatment in the fall, so that during the autumn-spring period, chlorine ions are washed into the lower layers of the soil. On sandy and sandy soils, potash fertilizers must be applied only in the spring to prevent loss of potassium from leaching.
EuroChem took care of its customers and their crops, therefore, for a balanced nutrition of potatoes, it prepared a complex mineral fertilizer - nitroammofoska 14-14-23. This brand of fertilizer is designed for growing tubers, root crops and vegetable crops.
Nitroammofosku 14-14-23 can be used with sowing or in front of it. What sets her apart from others?
- Production technology that allows you to minimize the amount of potassium chloride to 25% and increase the content of potassium nitrate to 75%, respectively. Another advantage of nitroammofoska 14-14-23 is a stronger, in comparison with analogues, granule containing the same amount of basic nutrients and additional (sulfur, calcium, magnesium) in a form available to plants.
In 2016, in the Volgograd region, on the basis of the Raigorod farm, a number of experiments were carried out in order to determine the effectiveness of using NPK 14-14-23 fertilizer for chips potatoes under irrigation conditions. According to the method of application, two options were considered: one-time in the spring at a dose of 1000 kg / ha and fractionally - 350 kg / ha in the fall and 650 kg / ha in the spring. The standard farm scheme provided for the application of 350 kg / ha NPK 9-25-25 in the fall and 650 kg / ha NPK 17-0,1-28 in the spring. According to the test results, the maximum yield (the increase was 3,3 t / ha) was achieved in the variant of a single application of the full dose of nitroammofoska 14-14-23. An assessment of the economic efficiency of this scheme showed that the profit per hectare increased by 1 rubles.
In addition to potassium nutrition, prolonged nitrogen nutrition is of great importance for potatoes. The presence of available nitrogen for a long time contributes to the formation of marketable tubers, which, ultimately, increases the yield of commercial fraction. Therefore, in addition to complex NPK fertilizers, EuroChem specialists recommend using KAS-32 liquid fertilizer, which contains 8% nitrate and ammonium nitrogen and 16% amide, to obtain maximum yields. Due to the gradual conversion of the amide form of nitrogen to ammonium, and then to the nitrate form, which is most accessible to plants, nitrogen losses when using this fertilizer are minimal.
The effectiveness of potato dressing KAS-32 has been repeatedly proven empirically, for example, in the Moscow region on the basis of JSC "Ozery". One of the productive varieties, Gala, was selected for testing, on which specialists used Diammofoska 10-26-26 as the main complex fertilizer. After summing up the results, it was revealed that the option of applying 300 l of UAN-32 under the ridges compared to the introduction of 200 kg of ammonium nitrate gave an increase in yield of 5 t / ha. At the same time, the output of the marketable fraction increased by 16,6%, and the profit received amounted to 63000 rubles per hectare.
NITROGEN IN TUBERS WITHOUT LOSS
A competent nitrogen fertilization system can not only increase yields, but also save the farmer's money. Great prospects for potato growers in this direction are opened by the innovative product of the EuroChem company - UTEK urea.
The technology of coating urea granules with a urease inhibitor prolongs the action of nitrogen, which ensures the development of tubers of equal size. The main problem of nitrogen nutrition remains unproductive nitrogen loss, which sometimes reaches 80%. The use of UTEC carbamide can significantly reduce them.
The experiments conducted by EuroChem specialists in 2018 on the basis of the Kudashevo SEC in the Tula Region showed that the use of inhibited urea not only increases the yield of potatoes, but also significantly increases the yield of the commercial fraction.
Before planting Red Scarlett potatoes for soil milling, ammonium nitrate was introduced at a dose of 200 kg / ha and UTEC urea 150 kg / ha. When planting, a potato brand NPK 14-14-23 was used as a complex fertilizer on both variants. The results of the experiments showed that in the UTEC urea variant, in calculating the biological yield, the yield of the commercial fraction was 27 t / ha, which is 13,5% higher than the control.
MINERAL FOOD OPTIMIZATION
A set of all necessary elements will help optimize the potato nutrition system to the maximum. Leaf dressing has become an integral part of the intensive technology of cultivating this crop, they allow you to use the genetic potential of productivity and increase the efficiency of basic fertilizers. EuroChem offers a wide range of water-soluble fertilizers. Among them are mono products (monoammonium phosphate, monopotassium phosphate, potassium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, calcium nitrate), and complex NPK Aqualis ©, designed for use as nutrition correctors.
EuroChem plans to continue production and scientific testing of fertilizers on potatoes in the future. The company's specialists will always help you understand the issues of mineral nutrition of this and other crops, advise and select the schemes corresponding to the conditions of your farm.
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