For many regions of our country, winter cereals are the main crops. Their share of the total sown area in the Russian Federation, according to Rosstat, is more than 23% (18,7 million hectares - for the harvest in 2021), and in the Southern and North Caucasian Federal Districts - more than 60%. It is winter wheat, the gross harvest of which last year amounted to 63,2 million tons (against 22,7 million tons of spring wheat), that provides the main grain harvest and serves as a kind of guarantor of the country's food well-being. In the most unfavorable years, farmers rely on winter crops: due to a more developed root system, these crops are more resistant to drought and frost, which allows farms to get a guaranteed harvest and, at least, “go to zero”.
So the 2020/2021 season turned out to be difficult for the main agricultural regions of Russia: autumn was dry, and spring was rainy and cold. Experts believe that due to unfavorable weather conditions, the volume of gross harvest of winter crops will decrease compared to last year, but will still remain quite high.
It is not known what challenges the next year is preparing, but it is in our power to take care of our crops and think about the choice of technologies, fertilizers and varieties.
In order to choose the right basic mineral fertilizers, it is necessary to understand the needs of winter crops in the fall.
Complex fertilizers. Overview of the most effective forms
Ammophos is a versatile, highly effective fertilizer that has a wide application practice on a wide variety of soil types in all climatic zones of the country. It is one of the most concentrated phosphate fertilizers - 52 g P2O5, 95% soluble in water, that is, the element is easily accessible to plants. Most effective in combination with ammonium nitrogen.
Why is it so important to provide crops with available phosphorus at the initial stage of growth? Phosphorus is not only energy, but also an essential element of carbohydrate metabolism and synthesis of complex organic compounds. He, in addition to the general stimulation of metabolic and growth processes, is responsible for the formation of a powerful root system, which is extremely important for winter crops. Ammophos has excellent physical and chemical properties, is easy to apply, strengthens the root system, increases plant resistance to drought and disease.
Application rate: from 70 to 150 kg / ha.
Sulfoammophos 20:20 (13,5)
Possessing all the positive qualities of ammophos, this product is also an excellent source of sulfur, calcium and magnesium. All these elements are contained in NPS 20: 20: 13,5 sulfoammophos manufactured by EuroChem. The balanced content of nitrogen and phosphorus provides the necessary nutrition, and the sulfur content makes this fertilizer unique. Sulfur is necessary for plants in the same way as nitrogen: being a part of protein compounds, it participates in vital metabolic processes. In addition, and most importantly for winter crops, sulfur contributes to the growth of plant resistance to diseases, and is also one of the key elements that increase the quality of grain.
Sulfoammophos is ideal for areas with low sulfur availability and is indispensable for obtaining high-quality products, while at the same time it is more affordable than ammophos.
Application rate: from 100 to 200 kg / ha.
Нитроаммофоски 14:14:23, 16:16:16, 10:26:26
Suitable for application in fields with a minimum of plant residues from the previous crop, after crops with a large carryover of potassium or in fields with a deficiency of potassium in the soil. In these fertilizers, the nitrate and ammonium forms are contained in equal proportions, due to which, on the one hand, optimal nutrition conditions are created, and on the other hand, a decrease in nitrogen losses is ensured. In addition, due to the natural composition of the raw material, the fertilizer contains sulfur, calcium and magnesium. The choice of the formula depends on the composition of the soil and the removal of the crop. It is better to give preference to brands with a high content of phosphorus and potassium, since they are more important for the plant in the fall. If the content of both elements is below average, it is better to choose the 10:26:26 brand.
In conditions when a low potassium content is noted in the field against the background of a fairly regular use of phosphorus fertilizers, the 14:14:23 brand can be safely used. Potassium will contribute to the resistance of plants in conditions of sharp temperature fluctuations and a lack of moisture. The effect of the use of potash fertilizers is most noticeable on light soils, however, in small doses, potassium must be applied for winter sowing in all soil and climatic zones to ensure better winter hardiness of crops.
Let us recall that, despite the widespread opinion about the sufficient content of potassium in soils, this does not always correspond to reality. Modern methods of laboratory analysis do not provide objective and reliable data on the content of potassium readily available to plants. Therefore, it is also worth paying attention to this element when working with grain crops, especially if you are faced with such problems as frost, drought and lodging. It is potassium that increases the resistance of cereals in all these cases, providing the necessary water-holding capacity of the leaves and the strength of the straws.
Application rate: from 100 to 200 kg / ha.
Use proven methods, but do not forget that extraordinary measures work effectively in unusual conditions!
Subtleties of making
The main fertilizers in regions with a deficit of autumn precipitation can be applied when preparing the soil for winter sowing, that is, in advance. There is a practice of applying ammophos, sulfoammophos and NPK for the next expected precipitation a month or two before sowing - this allows the fertilizers to dissolve in the soil.
In addition to the forms and doses of fertilizers, the method of application is also important, namely the spatial distribution of fertilizers during sowing. If the main fertilizers are given randomly, then the application rates for phosphorus should be in the range of 40-60 kg a.i. / ha. If there is a technique that makes it possible to lay the fertilizer "in a row", the doses are reduced to 20-40 kg / ha. The pellets are placed 5 cm to the side and deeper (i.e. 7-8 cm diagonally) from the seedbed. Seeding the fertilizer in a row allows you to reduce the application dose without sacrificing yield compared to the spreading method. But seeding units that allow using this method of application are much more expensive than spreaders.
Choose the right fertilizer for your farm conditions. Have questions? Please contact EuroChem specialists who will help you choose the best nutritional option for the entire spectrum of crops.
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