Territory: 67 847 sq. M. Km
Population: 3 people, of which 886% are residents of the city
Geographical position: The republic is located in the east of the East European Plain, at the confluence of two major rivers - the Volga and the Kama.
Climate: temperate continental, with warm summers and moderately cold winters. The warmest month is July with an average monthly air temperature of 18-20 °С, the coldest month is January with average monthly temperatures from -13 °С. Precipitation is distributed relatively evenly over the territory, their annual amount is 460-540 mm. The climatic conditions of the republic are moderately favorable for agriculture.
Relief: the territory of the republic is a plain with uplands and lowlands, which were formed over a geologically long time. The average surface height is 150–160 m, 90% of the territory lies at an altitude of no more than 200 m above sea level.
Soils: differ in great diversity - from gray forest and podzolic in the north and west to various types of chernozems in the south of the republic.
Agricultural land area: 83,2 thousand ha
The Republic of Tatarstan is one of the regions of the Russian Federation with developed potato growing. The annual production of potatoes reaches 1,2-1,3 million tons per year (in farms of all categories). The annual demand of the population is about 350 thousand tons, the need for seed material is about 160 thousand tons.
At the same time, it should be noted that in recent years in the industrial sector of the region there has been a reduction in the area allocated for the cultivation of table potatoes, this is largely due to the fact that for several years in a row the market has maintained extremely low prices for these products, and agricultural producers have refused this cultures in favor of more profitable ones. The reduction in areas naturally led to a decrease in the amount of collections.
In 2021, the drought had a big impact on the harvest. A state of emergency was introduced in 42 out of 43 districts of the republic. As a result, 871 thousand tons of potatoes were harvested in the region (for comparison: in 2020 - 1,2 million tons). In agricultural organizations and peasant farms, the volume of grown potatoes amounted to 75,3 thousand tons (31,3 thousand tons less than a year earlier).
In 2022, the agricultural producers of the republic are faced with the task of increasing the cultivation of potatoes and vegetables in open ground: it is planned to increase the area under these crops by 10%.
To stimulate the production of these crops, the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Tatarstan introduces special support measures: all agricultural enterprises and peasant farms that continue to grow potatoes and vegetables will receive 25 thousand rubles. per hectare, and farms that increased their sown area by 10% or more compared to 2021 - 40 thousand rubles per hectare.
Also, a federal project is currently being developed to support potato and vegetable producers, including private household plots, which will receive subsidies from 2022. It is planned to allocate about 5 billion rubles to finance the events.
Potato production in the Republic of Tatarstan in the organized sector (SHO + KFH)
|years||Area, ha||Gross harvest, thousand tons||Average yield, centner/ha|
Large potato farms
As of 2021, there were 82 potato and vegetable producers in the Republic of Tatarstan, 70% of farms are concentrated in six regions of Tatarstan.
The largest potato-growing enterprises include LLC AF "Kyrlay", Arsky district (more than 1150 hectares under potatoes), KFH Davletov N.G., Menzelinsky district (210 hectares under potatoes), AF Narmonka LLC, Laishevsky district (395 ha under potatoes), AF Igenche LLC, Arsky district (200 ha under potatoes), Zemlyaki farm, Nizhnekamsky district (200 ha under potatoes).
Last year, prices for potatoes and vegetables in Russia hit a record high. The residents of the Republic of Tatarstan also faced this problem. One of the reasons for the current situation (in addition to the general reduction in the volume of crops) should be recognized as the lack of modern potato and vegetable stores in the region (especially those equipped with refrigeration equipment).
At the moment, the volume of storage capacities for potatoes and vegetables in the republic exceeds 140 thousand tons. The nearest plans include the construction of nine new vegetable stores with a total capacity of 20 tons. But for the implementation of such projects, state support is required. This year, agricultural producers can count on compensation of 30% of the cost of overhauling vegetable and potato storage facilities (excluding equipment and VAT) and reimbursement of 50% of the costs of developing design and estimate documentation and building new vegetable, potato and fruit storage facilities (under approval).
Land reclamation is of great importance for the development of agriculture in the republic. Almost the entire volume of potatoes in the organized sector is grown under irrigation.
Tatarstan is a member of the state program for the effective involvement of agricultural land in the circulation (providing for 50% subsidies for all meliorative programs implemented by agricultural enterprises). Ameliorative measures are also being implemented within the framework of the national project "Export of agricultural products" to develop hydromelioration and technical re-equipment of irrigated lands.
Agricultural producers introducing irrigation in their farms receive compensation for 70% of the costs associated with the purchase of reclamation equipment.
About 2 hectares of new irrigated land are brought into the region every year. In recent years, more than 32 thousand hectares of irrigated land have been restored, more than 450 hydraulic structures have been repaired.
But while this is not enough, the regional five-year program for the introduction of irrigated lands, which is now being developed in the republic, should help to increase the pace.
Potato selection and seed production
Work on breeding and seed production of potatoes in the republic is carried out by scientists from the TatNIISH, a separate structural subdivision of the FRC KazSC RAS.
In addition, a large seed-growing enterprise, Alchak LLC, operates on the territory of the republic. The farm annually produces up to 5 thousand tons of certified seed potatoes of high reproductions (from the first field generation to the elite) varieties Rosara, Red Scarlett, Nevsky, Zhukovsky early, Impala, Udacha, Colette, Gala, Reggie, Krona, Sanyava, Riviera, Vineta, Lady Claire.
A number of other enterprises in the region are also engaged in growing seed potatoes. The provision with seed potatoes by the 2022 season in the republic is 103%.
The editors would like to thank the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Tatarstan for their help in preparing the material.