Last season, agricultural enterprises of the Sverdlovsk region grew potatoes on an area of 13,9 thousand hectares. The average yield was fixed at 180,4 c / ha. The volume of gross harvest for the year amounted to 250,7 thousand tons.
Territory: 194 sq. km, length from north to south 307 km, from west to east - 660 km.
Population: 4 325 256 people, of which 84,78% are urban residents. Geographical position: located on the eastern slope of the Ural Mountains and bordered by the West Siberian lowland. In the southwest, the region extends to the western slopes of the middle Urals.
Climate: continental, but due to the length of the territory along the meridian of more than 600 km and differences in relief, a significant variety of climatic conditions is noted in the region.
On the plains, the average January temperature is fixed at -20 ° С in the north and -16 ° С in the south. The average temperature in July varies from 16 ° С in the north to 19 ° С in the south. As you move away from the ridge and move to the south, the sum of positive temperatures increases and the amount of annual precipitation decreases. The main territory of the plains is located in the temperate zone, and the southeastern and partly southwestern parts of the region are already included in the temperate zone with the most favorable climatic conditions for agriculture. The climate of the mountainous belt is less continental, with lower summer temperatures and more humid than on the plains. The average annual precipitation is 350-400 mm in the south-east and 500 mm in the north, and in the mountainous regions of the south-west it exceeds 500-600 mm. Due to these climatic conditions, the average growing season in the Sverdlovsk region is approximately 130 days.
Relief: the western part of the region is located within the Middle and Northern Urals, and the eastern part lies on the western edge of the West Siberian lowland. The region of the Middle Urals is more like a plateau - in the west, the height of the foothills ranges from 300 to 500 meters, and in the east, the area has a rugged relief with average elevations from 200 to 300 meters. The highest point in the region is the Konzhakovsky Kamen peak (1539 m high).
Soils: 35 genetic types of soils have been identified on the territory of the region - from mountain-tundra and podzolic in the north of the region to chernozems and chernozem-meadow in the south. Podzolic and soddy-podzolic soils prevail (33,2% of the total soil cover), dark gray soils are spread over 20% of the territory. Gray and light gray soils occupy 13,1%. Chernozems are found in small tracts in the south and southwest of the region. In the mountainous part, mountain-taiga and mountain-tundra soils are widespread.
Agricultural land: 4082,6 ha (21,0%)..
Potato is a significant crop for the Middle Urals. The Sverdlovsk Region has for many years maintained a stable position in the top ten leading potato regions in Russia.
However, according to the preliminary results of the 2016 All-Russian Agricultural Census published by Sverdlovskstat, since 2006, the area of potato cultivation in the region has decreased from 50,3 to 48,9 thousand ha. The numbers decreased mainly due to the reduction of landings in personal subsidiary plots of citizens.
But in large agricultural organizations and farms over this period, the amount of space allocated for potatoes, on the contrary, increased. Yield indicators have also increased markedly: in farms using modern technologies, these figures are today comparable with European achievements.
Although in some years, interest in culture among agricultural producers still declined. So, in 2016, in the industrial sector of the region, a decrease in potato planting volumes (in comparison with 2015) was recorded by almost a thousand hectares. Many farms (especially small and medium ones) refused to work with the crop, since the price of potatoes remained extremely low for several consecutive seasons.
Last season, in the commodity farms of the Sverdlovsk region, potatoes were grown on an area of 13,9 thousand ha. The average yield was fixed at 180,4 c / ha. According to the results of the year, the gross yield amounted to 250,7 thousand tons.
SELECTION AND SEEDING
A significant contribution to the development of selection and seed production of potatoes in the region and the country as a whole is made by the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Ural Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture. Over the years, a great experience has been accumulated in the cultivation of new varieties of potatoes. Many varieties are included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation, including the well-known not only Ural potato growers Mayak, Otrada, Amur, Bravo, Gornyak, Lux, Start, etc.
FSBI Ural Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture was one of the first in Russia to conduct genetic certification of its varieties and the most promising hybrids: in this way, selection and selection according to the most valuable useful traits is carried out more targetedly and purposefully. On the experimental site annually tested more than 20 thousand genotypes.
Since 2013, the Ural Research Institute of Agriculture, together with AO AIC Belorechensky, has been working on the implementation of a joint project of the Ural Potato Seed Breeding Center. More than 100 million rubles have already been invested in the project, of which 23 million are state support funds.
The task of the seed-breeding center is to conduct seed-growing activities: work with 15-20 potato varieties, of which at least 60% are varieties of its own selection and selection of the Ural Research Institute, another 40% are varieties of Russian and foreign breeding.
At the moment, the first stage of the project has been completed: high-tech laboratories for microclonal propagation of potatoes and diagnostics have been launched (Ural Potato is one of the most modern breeding centers for laboratory equipment), six greenhouses have been built for growing minitubers.
It is expected that in 2018 70 thousand pieces will be produced in the seed breeding center. plants in vitro and 560 thousand pieces were obtained. minitubers, in 2019 - 200 tons of seeds of the "first field generation" category, in 2020 - 1400 tons of seeds of the "super elite" category. And from 2021 it is planned to start production of 10 thousand tons of seeds of the "elite" category to provide agricultural producers in the region and other regions of Russia. Further, marketable potatoes will be grown directly on the farms (first reproduction).
VARIETIES OF POTATO SELECTION FGBNU "URAL NIISH"
MINER. Medium early, yield up to 62 t / ha; starchiness 14-19%; palatability 4,3-4,8 points; poor digestibility (type B).
Resistant to cancer and golden cyst-forming potato nematode (RO1). Weakly affected by late blight and scab.
The bush is tall, erect; flowering is plentiful, long. The inflorescence is spreading, multi-flowered. The whisk is white. Berry education is rare and secondary.
The tubers are round, yellow; eyes are small; mesh peel; the flesh is light yellow.
It is characterized by a consistently high tuber yield and low nitrate content in them, and resistance to drought.
AMUR. Medium early, yield up to 48 t / ha; starchiness 12-14%; palatability 4,0-4,4 points; medium digestibility (type B).
Resistant to cancer. Moderately affected by late blight on the tops. Weakly affected by common scab.
The bush is tall, sprawling; medium flowering, short-term. The inflorescence is spreading. Corolla light purple. Berry education is rare.
The tubers are oval, red; flat footprint, small eyes; the peel is smooth; the flesh is light yellow, not darkening during cooking.
It is distinguished by early tuberization and rapid accumulation of the crop in the first half of the growing season, high marketability and attractive appearance.
BRAVO. Medium early, yield up to 57 t / ha; starchiness 12-14%; palatability 4,0-4,2 points; poor digestibility (type B).
Resistant to cancer and golden cyst-forming potato nematode (RO1). Moderately affected by late blight on the tops. Weakly affected by common scab.
The bush is tall, sprawling; medium flowering, short-term. The inflorescence is compact. Corolla light purple. Berry formation is rare.
The tubers are round, red; eyes are small; the peel is smooth; the flesh is light yellow, not darkening during cooking.
The variety is an intensive type, characterized by consistently high productivity, and is resistant to drought.
LUX. Early, yield up to 49 t / ha; starchiness 13%; palatability 17,0-4,2 points; poor digestibility (type B).
Resistant to cancer and golden cyst-forming potato nematode (RO1). Moderately resistant to late blight. Weakly affected by common scab.
The bush is low, sprawling; flowering is weak, short-term. The inflorescence is compact. Corolla light purple. Berry formation is rare.
The tubers are elongated oval, red; flat footprint, small eyes; the peel is smooth; the flesh is light yellow, not darkening during cooking.
It differs in high early productivity, leveling of tubers; attractive appearance. Responsive to the introduction of high doses of mineral fertilizers.
START. Early, productivity up to 50 t / ha; starchiness 13-17,7%; palatability 3,9-4,6 points; medium digestibility (type B).
Resistant to cancer and golden cyst-forming potato nematode (RO1). Weakly affected by late blight on the leaves. Medium resistant to common scab. High resistance to viruses Y, X, S, M, L.
The bush is tall, sprawling; flowering plentiful, multi-flowered. Corolla red-violet. Berry production is average.
The tubers are round, red; eyes are small, red; the peel is smooth; the flesh is light yellow.
It is distinguished by high early marketable yield, large clubbing; high content of vitamin C (26 mg /%).
Much attention is paid to the organization of storage of vegetables and potatoes in the region: modern storages allow farmers to provide local residents with local products until the next season.
In 2014, the region launched a regional program for the construction of vegetable stores. Over the two years of the program’s work in the region, refrigerators for storing Ural vegetables with a volume of 27 thousand tons were built.
Today, the supply of vegetable stores in the Sverdlovsk region reaches 84%.
Personnel training for the potato growing industry in the Sverdlovsk region is carried out in one of the largest universities in the region - the Ural State Agrarian University (Ural State Agrarian University). For 78 years of operation, the Ural State Agrarian University has trained more than thirty two thousand specialists for almost all branches of the agro-industrial complex.
Today, more than 7 thousand students study at the university, programs are being implemented in 32 areas of higher education preparation, and 9 areas of secondary vocational education.
Recruitment for the first year is carried out at 947 budget places (in 2018, recruitment for such specialties as agricultural engineering, veterinary medicine, livestock farming, land management and cadastres, etc.) was increased. In addition, this year the share of target-holders for agricultural specialties increased (from 30% to 50%). Thus, the Ministry of Agriculture of the region plans to "grow" the most scarce specialists in rural areas and significantly rejuvenate the personnel in the agricultural sector.
On August 22-23, in the Sverdlovsk region (the village of Kochnevskoye, Beloyarsky district), on the basis of the Belorechensky agro-industrial complex, the All-Russian Potato Field Day will be held, which, as the organizers hope, will become a holiday for all potato growers in the country.
The material was prepared using media information and open sources.