Territory: 314,4 thousand square meters km
Population: 1 million 47 thousand people
Geographical position: The region is located in the southeastern part of Western Siberia. It borders on the Tyumen, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Kemerovo regions, the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Included in the Siberian Federal District
Climate: moderately continental. The average temperature in July is +18 C, in January -19,2 C.
Relief: flat, very swampy. The Tomsk region is a part of the world natural phenomenon - the swampiness of the West Siberian Plain. Nowhere else in the world is there such a spread of swamps and swampy forests as in this territory. A significant part of the land of the Tomsk region is occupied by forests (about 51% of the territory), usually to varying degrees of waterloggedness, as well as swamps (about 31%), including peat bogs. Peat deposits with a thickness of more than 80 cm occupy about 24% of the region's territory. The progressing bog process covers large areas of the region's land, according to some estimates, they increase by 1800 hectares annually.
Soils: automorphic, semi-hydromorphic and hydromorphic. Characterized by increased hydromorphism, due to the boggy territory, and in the southern regions - by strong freezing and slow thawing of soils. Among other specific features, it should be noted: the presence of the second humus horizons in sod-podzolic and gray forest soils; the presence of ortsands in soils of light texture; low soil temperature.
Agricultural land area: 1,2 million hectares, of which arable land - 676 thousand hectares. The provision of arable land in the Tomsk region is one of the lowest in the West Siberian region, per capita - 0,65 hectares. For comparison, in the Altai Territory there are 2,64 hectares of arable land per inhabitant, in the Novosibirsk region - 1,36 hectares, in the Omsk region - 2,0 hectares. The average for the Siberian Federal District is 1,15 hectares.
2018 SEASON. PRODUCTION AND YIELD GROWTH
Potato in human nutrition takes second place after bread. Peasants of the Tomsk region, as in many other Russian regions, regard this culture with great respect.
The Tomsk region has always been considered one of the flagships for growing potatoes in Siberia. Despite the harsh climatic conditions, the abundance of swampy soils, weeds and pests, Tomsk potato growers and breeders achieve high production results.
The average potato yield in the region is 190 centners per hectare, but the leaders, for example, the Zavarzinsky breeding plant, receive up to 400 centners per hectare, thanks to the use of modern scientific developments, promising varieties and strict adherence to technology. By the end of 2017, the gross harvest of potatoes in the region exceeded 33 thousand tons.
FACT. The profitability of potato production in 2017 in the Tomsk Region exceeded 17,5%.
According to the Department of Social and Economic Development of the Village of the Tomsk Region, in 2018 the cultivated area under potatoes in agricultural organizations, farms and individual entrepreneurs is more than 1,5 thousand hectares, or 17,5% of all crops.
According to the regional statistical service, the largest potato producers in the Tomsk Region are private farmsteads, where in 2018 potatoes were planted on an area of over 7 thousand ha.
INDUSTRY TRAINING SYSTEM
In 2018, the Department for Social and Economic Development of the Village of the Tomsk Region began working with employers and agricultural educational institutions on the formation of the latest competencies necessary for young specialists in the agro-industrial complex. Particular attention is paid to one of the key specialties in agriculture - agronomy.
On the basis of higher education, agronomists for the farms of the Tomsk region have been trained for 25 years by the Department of Agronomy and Technology and Processing of Agricultural Products of the Tomsk Agricultural Institute, a branch of the NSAU. In 2018, 115 students are studying there. The last release took place in 2016, the next one will be in 2019. The enrollment plan for 2019 is 20 full-time students and 30 correspondence students.
Among the best of the university are the chief agronomists of regional administrations and large agricultural complexes, as well as heads of farms.
INDUSTRY INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
Currently, the Tomsk region provides itself with potatoes at 130-140%. This is an important culture for the region, which is second only to wheat in importance.
Thus, OOO Kolpakov, a leading potato farm in the Tomsk region, producing more than 5 thousand tons of products per year, plans to build a potato storage with a capacity of 2019 thousand tons by the end of 2,5. During construction, modular technologies will be used, which will eventually increase storage capacity to 8 thousand tons of vegetables and potatoes per year. Thus, the farm will be able to provide all-year-round trade networks and social institutions of Tomsk with high-quality local products.
33 farms (8 agricultural enterprises and 25 peasant farms) are engaged in industrial production of potatoes in the region, 16 of them are located in the Tomsk region. Three enterprises have the status of seed-growing (working according to the “super-super-elite”, “super-elite” and “elite” scheme), providing high-quality planting material not only to their own enterprises, but also to colleagues.
The high results in their activities are achieved by the enterprises LLC Kolpakov, Favorit, agricultural firm Zorkaltsevskaya, Zarechnoye, farmers Mikhail Kolpakov and Vyacheslav Rychko and others.
Two large potato farms are located in Shegarsky and northern Kolpashevsky districts. Kolpashevsky district is equated to the category of regions of the Far North, or extreme agriculture, but even there agricultural producers learned to get high yields.
SELECTION AND SEEDING
In the north of the region there are experimental fields of the Narym department of the Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Peat of the branch of the Siberian Scientific Center for Scientific Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Scientists of this unit for more than 70 years (potato breeding has been going on since 1938, and they began to study agricultural technology since 1912) are improving potato cultivation technologies and systems for protecting it from diseases.
The selection process is carried out in a field of ten-field crop rotation on sod-medium podzolic sandy loam soil with low natural fertility.
At the production sites of the department, work on seed production has been launched. Primary seed production is carried out according to a four-year scheme: first year - selection of initial plants; Year XNUMX - Year XNUMX clone trial; Year XNUMX - Year XNUMX clone trial; fourth year - super-super elite nursery. Agricultural organizations are offered seed material of varieties: Pamyati Rogachev, Solnechny, Yubilyar, Yugan, Sarovsky.
In the future, on the basis of the Narym department of the Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Peat, it is planned to create a center for the development of selection and seed production in potato growing, capable of providing high-quality domestic farms of Siberia with domestic seed material. The institute has already installed some modern aeroponic installations, accelerating the process of creating varieties several times. The technologies that the future center will use will allow not only organizing reproduction, excluding the infection of tubers with viruses at any stage, but also producing minitubers without soil all year round.
Scientists of the Narym Department of the Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Peat have created the following potato varieties: Narymsky early (1961), Kolpashevsky (1966), Ideal (1967), Priobsky (1972), Narymka (1989), Yanga (1997), Tomich (1998), Nakra (2000), In memory of Rogachev and Antonin (2005), Sunny (2006), Ketsky (2008), Yubilyar (2009), Yugana (2011), Sarovsky (2014). Basically, all of the listed varieties are included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements approved for use in the Russian Federation. Also, the scientists of the institute are co-authors of varieties: Narymchanin (Polessky - 36), Mother and created, but not zoned varieties: Krasa Naryma, Taezhnik, Venus, Chaya, Belukha.
Varieties of Tomsk selection are resistant to pathogens, good and excellent taste, as well as a complex of other positive signs.
Early varieties (Priobsky, Antonina, Yubilyar, Sarovsky) form a marketable yield at the level of 15-20 t / ha on the 60th day after germination. The varieties Ketsky, Solnechny, Pamyati Rogachev, Antonina are characterized by a higher yield potential (50-60 t / ha and more), but accumulate the main harvest at a later date. Varieties Nakra, Pamyati Rogacheva, Solnechny, Yugan and early variety Sarovskiy are capable of starch accumulation in the amount of 23% or more. Potato varieties Tomich, Ketsky and Solnechny are suitable for making chips, Antonina - for deep freezing, Yugan - for making French fries.
At the present stage, the task of potato breeding in the Narym department of SibNIISHKhiT consists in the cultivation of high-yielding early ripening varieties that are able to ripen faster in the short growing season at lower autumn temperatures, more resistant to diseases and pests, with high tuber quality indicators. At present, red-clad varieties with a perfectly even tuber shape are more in demand.
TOMSK POTATO HOLIDAY
For several years in a row, the region has been holding an autumn fair - the regional "Potato Festival". Every year it becomes more and more extensive. In 2017, about five thousand residents of Tomsk and guests of the city attended the festival, who received a total of 110 tons of potatoes. A large assortment of varietal potatoes is annually offered at the fair by a constant participant - the Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Peat - a branch of the SFNTSA RAS.
During the holiday, a competition for the largest potato tuber is held annually. In 2017, tubers-heavyweights for the competition were provided by residents of Asinovsky, Pervomaisky, Molchanovsky, Tomsk, Shegarsky, Chainsky districts. According to the weighing results, a tuber weighing 1330 grams, grown on the Molchanov land, received the title of "Bogatyr Potato".
TOMSKY ZEMLE - YOUNG POTATOES!
The Narym department of the Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Peat in the city of Kolpashevo, Tomsk Region, has been working on the cultivation of colored potatoes for about 10 years.
Scientists have already managed to obtain tubers of purple, blue-violet, and also red flowers (not only the peel is painted, but also the flesh). According to breeders, potatoes are rich in antioxidants. However, at the moment, the varieties have not yet been registered, and therefore are grown only in private courtyards. Industrial production will be possible only after passing the test.
FIELD DAY 2018: POTATO SECTOR
Within the framework of the three-day agro-industrial forum "Field Day-2018" in the Tomsk region, a whole day was devoted to the development of potato growing. On the basis of OOO Kolpakov in the Tomsk region - the regional leader in potato production - an offsite practical seminar "Potatoes in Siberia: cultivation experience and development prospects" was held. The event brought together about 50 scientists, breeders, potato growers from Moscow, Kemerovo, Novosibirsk and Tomsk regions.
The head of the enterprise Denis Kolpakov held a demonstration of modern potato-growing equipment, of which there are about 40 units on the farm. Energy-efficient John Deer tractors, Lemken trailed tillage machines, Grimme potato planting complex, etc. work in the field. - the whole range of technical solutions and innovations in agricultural technology, which allows the farm to carry out field work accurately and on time. The participants of the meeting were shown modern lines for the pre-sale preparation of potatoes (packing in a 2,5 kg mesh and in premium packaging made of combi-cloth; vacuum packing of peeled potatoes).
The special interest of breeders and potato growers-practitioners was aroused by the inspection of potato-growing fields, where today both domestic varieties - Kemerovochanin, Tuleyevsky - and foreign ones are cultivated (for the first time this year, experimental plantings of potato varieties of the German Seed Alliance were laid).
“We looked at the fields of the Kolpakov LLC farm and were very impressed,” commented Anastasia Borovkova, head of the potato department of the German Seed Alliance (Moscow). - Technologies that are applied at the enterprise, from tillage to plant protection, - at a very high level. Considering the harsh climatic conditions and the short growing season, the average potato yield of 220 centners achieved on the farm is also worthy of respect.
The participants of the seminar were also introduced to the work of the Laboratory of Biotechnological Methods of Breeding and Seed Production of Agricultural Crops of the Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Peat, a branch of the SFNCA RAS in the village of Bogashevo, where modern research is being carried out to obtain healthy potato minitubers by microcloning.