Territory: 314,4 thousand square meters km
Population: 1 million 47 thousand people
Geographical position: The region is located in the southeastern part of Western Siberia. It borders on the Tyumen, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Kemerovo regions, the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Included in the Siberian Federal District
Climate: moderately continental. The average temperature in July is +18 C, in January -19,2 C.
Relief: flat, very boggy. Tomsk Oblast is part of a global natural phenomenon - the swampiness of the West Siberian Plain. Nowhere else on the globe is there such a spread of swamps and swamp forests as in this territory. A significant part of the lands of the Tomsk Region is occupied by forests (approximately 51% of the territory), usually marshy to varying degrees, as well as marshes (about 31%), including peatlands. Peat deposits with a thickness of more than 80 cm occupy about 24% of the region. The progressive bog process covers large areas of the region’s land; according to some estimates, they increase by 1800 hectares annually.
Soils: automorphic, semihydromorphic and hydromorphic. Elevated hydromorphism is typical, due to the swampiness of the territory, and in the southern regions - severe freezing and slow thawing of soils. Among other specific features, it should be noted: the presence of second humus horizons in sod-podzolic and gray forest soils; the presence of ortzands in soils of light texture; low soil temperature.
Agricultural land area: 1,2 million ha, of which arable land - 676 thousand ha. The availability of arable land in the Tomsk Region is one of the lowest in the West Siberian region, per inhabitant - 0,65 ha. For comparison, 2,64 ha of arable land per inhabitant in Altai Krai, 1,36 ha in the Novosibirsk Region, and 2,0 ha in the Omsk Region. On average in the Siberian Federal District - 1,15 ha.
2018 SEASON. PRODUCTION AND YIELD GROWTH
Potato in human nutrition takes second place after bread. Peasants of the Tomsk region, as in many other Russian regions, regard this culture with great respect.
The Tomsk region has always been considered one of the flagships for growing potatoes in Siberia. Despite the harsh climatic conditions, the abundance of swampy soils, weeds and pests, Tomsk potato growers and breeders achieve high production results.
The average yield of potatoes in the region is 190 centners per hectare, however, leaders - for example, the Zavarzinsky breeding farm, receive up to 400 kg / ha due to the use of modern scientific developments, promising varieties and strict adherence to technology. According to the results of 2017, the gross harvest of potatoes in the region exceeded 33 thousand tons.
FACT. The profitability of potato production in 2017 in the Tomsk Region exceeded 17,5%.
According to the Department of Social and Economic Development of the Village of the Tomsk Region, in 2018 the cultivated area under potatoes in agricultural organizations, farms and individual entrepreneurs is more than 1,5 thousand hectares, or 17,5% of all crops.
According to the regional statistical service, the largest potato producers in the Tomsk Region are private farmsteads, where in 2018 potatoes were planted on an area of over 7 thousand ha.
TRAINING SYSTEM FOR THE INDUSTRY
In 2018, the Department of Social and Economic Development of the Village of Tomsk Region began working with employers and agricultural educational institutions on the formation of the latest competencies needed by young specialists in the agricultural sector. Particular attention is paid to one of the key specialties in agriculture - agronomy.
On the basis of higher education, the training of agronomists for the farms of the Tomsk Region for 25 years has been conducted by the Department of Agronomy and Technology and Processing of Agricultural Products of the Tomsk Agricultural Institute, a branch of the NSAU. In 2018, 115 students study there. The last release took place in 2016, the next will be in the 2019th. The recruitment plan for 2019 is 20 full-time students and 30 full-time students.
Among the best universities are the main agronomists of district administrations and large agricultural complexes, as well as farm managers.
INDUSTRY INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
Currently, the Tomsk region provides itself with potatoes at 130-140%. This is an important culture for the region, which is second only to wheat in importance.
So, Kolpakov LLC, the leading potato farm in the Tomsk region, producing more than 5 thousand tons of products per year, plans to build a potato storage with a capacity of 2019 thousand tons by the end of 2,5. During the construction, modular technologies will be used, which will allow over time to increase storage capacities up to 8 thousand tons of vegetables and potatoes per year. Thus, the economy will be able to provide trade networks and social institutions of Tomsk with high-quality local products all year round.
33 farms (8 agricultural enterprises and 25 peasant farms) are engaged in industrial production of potatoes in the region, 16 of them are located in the Tomsk region. Three enterprises have the status of seed-growing (working according to the “super-super-elite”, “super-elite” and “elite” scheme), providing high-quality planting material not only to their own enterprises, but also to colleagues.
The high results in their activities are achieved by the enterprises LLC Kolpakov, Favorit, agricultural firm Zorkaltsevskaya, Zarechnoye, farmers Mikhail Kolpakov and Vyacheslav Rychko and others.
Two large potato farms are located in Shegarsky and northern Kolpashevsky districts. Kolpashevsky district is equated to the category of regions of the Far North, or extreme agriculture, but even there agricultural producers learned to get high yields.
SELECTION AND SEEDING
In the north of the region there are experimental fields of the Narym department of the Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Peat of the branch of the Siberian Scientific Center for Scientific Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Scientists of this unit for more than 70 years (potato breeding has been going on since 1938, and they began to study agricultural technology since 1912) are improving potato cultivation technologies and systems for protecting it from diseases.
The selection process is carried out in a field of ten-field crop rotation on sod-medium podzolic sandy loam soil with low natural fertility.
Seed production has been launched at the production sites of the department. Primary seed production is carried out according to a four-year scheme: the first year - the selection of source plants; second year - test of the clones of the first year; third year - test of clones of the second year; fourth year - super-super-elite nursery. Agricultural enterprises are offered seed material of varieties: In memory of Rogachev, Solnechny, Yubilyar, Yugan, Sarovsky.
In the future, on the basis of the Narym department of the Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Peat, it is planned to create a center for the development of selection and seed production in potato growing, capable of providing high-quality domestic farms of Siberia with domestic seed material. The institute has already installed some modern aeroponic installations, accelerating the process of creating varieties several times. The technologies that the future center will use will allow not only organizing reproduction, excluding the infection of tubers with viruses at any stage, but also producing minitubers without soil all year round.
The scientists of the Narym department of the Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Peat created the following potato varieties: Early Narym (1961), Kolpashevsky (1966), Ideal (1967), Priobsky (1972), Narymka (1989), Yang (1997), Tomich (1998), Nakra (2000), In Memory of Rogachev and Antonin (2005), Solnechny (2006), Ketsky (2008), Hero of the Anniversary (2009), Yugana (2011), Sarovsky (2014). Basically, all of the listed varieties are listed in the State Register of selection achievements approved for use in the Russian Federation. Also, scientists of the institute are co-authors of the varieties: Narymchanin (Polessky - 36), Mother and the created, but not zoned, varieties: Krasa Naryma, Tayozhnik, Venus, Tea, Belukha.
Varieties of Tomsk selection are resistant to pathogens, good and excellent taste, as well as a complex of other positive signs.
Early varieties (Priobsky, Antonina, Yubilyar, Sarovsky) form a marketable crop at the level of 15-20 t / ha on the 60th day after germination. Varieties Ketsky, Solnechny, In memory of Rogachev, Antonin are characterized by a higher yield potential (50-60 t / ha and above), but they accumulate the main crop at a later date. Varieties Nakra, In memory of Rogachev, Solnechny, Yugan and the early variety Sarovsky are able to accumulate starch in an amount of 23% or more. Potato varieties Tomich, Ketsky and Solnechny are suitable for cooking chips, Antonina - for deep freezing, Yugan - for cooking french fries.
At the present stage, the task of potato breeding in the Narym department of SibNIISHKhiT consists in the cultivation of high-yielding early ripening varieties that are able to ripen faster in the short growing season at lower autumn temperatures, more resistant to diseases and pests, with high tuber quality indicators. At present, red-clad varieties with a perfectly even tuber shape are more in demand.
HOLIDAY OF TOMSK POTATO
For several years in a row, an autumn fair has been held in the region - the regional "Potato Festival". Every year it becomes more and more large-scale. In 2017, about five thousand Tomsk citizens and guests of the city visited the festival, who sold a total of 110 tons of potatoes. A large assortment of varietal potatoes is offered annually at the fair by a regular participant - the Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Peat - a branch of the Siberian Scientific Center for Scientific Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
During the festival, an annual competition is held for the largest potato tuber. In 2017, heavyweight tubers for the contest were provided by residents of Asinovsky, Pervomaisky, Molchanovsky, Tomsky, Shegarsky, Chainsky districts. According to the weighing results, the title "Potato Bogatyr" received a tuber weighing 1330 grams grown on Molchanovo land.
TOMSK LAND - YOUTH POTATOES!
The Narym department of the Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Peat in the city of Kolpashevo, Tomsk Region, has been working on the cultivation of colored potatoes for about 10 years.
Scientists have already managed to obtain tubers of purple, blue-violet, and also red flowers (not only the peel is painted, but also the flesh). According to breeders, potatoes are rich in antioxidants. However, at the moment, the varieties have not yet been registered, and therefore are grown only in private courtyards. Industrial production will be possible only after passing the test.
FIELD DAY 2018: POTATO SECTOR
In the framework of the three-day agro-industrial forum “Field Day-2018” in the Tomsk Region, the whole day was devoted to the development of potato growing. On the basis of Kolpakov LLC in the Tomsk Region, the regional leader in potato production, an on-site practical workshop “Potatoes in Siberia: Growing Experience and Development Prospects” was held. The event brought together about 50 scientists, breeders, potato growers from Moscow, Kemerovo, Novosibirsk and Tomsk regions.
The head of the enterprise Denis Kolpakov held a demonstration of modern potato growing equipment, which has about 40 units on the farm. The field is powered by John Deer energy-efficient tractors, Lemken tillage trailed machines, the Grimme potato planting complex, etc. - The whole range of technical solutions and innovations in agricultural technology, which allows the farm to carry out field work precisely and on time. The meeting participants were shown modern lines for the pre-sale preparation of potatoes (packaging in a 2,5 kg net and in premium packaging from combi-cloth; vacuum packaging of peeled potatoes).
Of particular interest to scientists-breeders and potato growers-practitioners was the inspection of potato fields, where both domestic varieties - Kemerovochanin, Tuleyevsky - and foreign ones are cultivated today (for the first time this year, experimental planting of potato varieties of the German Seed Alliance was planted).
“We looked at the farm fields of Kolpakov LLC and were very impressed,” commented Anastasia Borovkova, head of the potato department of the German Seed Alliance (Moscow). - Technologies that are applied at the enterprise, starting from tillage and ending with plant protection, - at a very high level. Given the harsh climatic conditions and the short growing season, the average potato yield of 220 centners achieved on the farm is also worthy of respect.
The seminar participants were also introduced to the work of the Laboratory of Biotechnological Methods for Crop Breeding and Seed Production of the Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Peat, a branch of the Siberian Scientific Center for Scientific Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the village of Bogashevo, where modern research is currently being conducted on obtaining healthy minicubers of potatoes by microcloning.