New varieties of potatoes, technologies for protecting plants from diseases and pests were presented at a research and production seminar at the South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato (UUNIISK) in Chelyabinsk. The leaders and employees of the institute spoke about the new results of potato breeding.
The seminar was attended by acting First Deputy Minister of Agriculture of the Chelyabinsk Region Alexander Zavalishchin and Head of the Department of Plant Growing and Small Businesses of the Regional Ministry of Agriculture Yuri Zasypkin, newly appointed head of YUNIISK - a branch of the Ural Federal Agrarian Research Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Ural Agricultural Research Center) Nikolai Glaz, as well as representatives of supplier of plant protection products, research institutes of the Sverdlovsk and Orenburg regions, agronomists of the South Urals ofelevodcheskih enterprises.
Opening the seminar, Alexander Zavalishchin noted that today the Chelyabinsk region has achieved good success in the production of livestock products, in particular poultry and pork - in the ranking of Russian regions, respectively, takes the second and sixth lines. In the processing of grain, the cultivation of oilseeds the region also shows good results. Potatoes are also grown in large enough volumes, both in collective enterprises and in households.
- In 2018, only potato-growing organizations and farms grew and harvested 146 thousand tons of potatoes, - said the acting First Deputy Minister, over the past twenty years this is a record crop for the region. Of this volume, 40 thousand tons of potatoes are exported for sale outside the region. With an increase in production, manufacturers are faced with the problem of selling all of these products. This means that buyers, retail chains are not happy with something. It is necessary to analyze the situation on the market, the requirements of trade and make an application to scientists - to create a variety that is in demand on the market.
The head of the institute, candidate of agricultural sciences, spoke about new varieties of potatoes bred at YuUNIISK and undergoing state variety testing today. Nikolay Glaz :
- A promising direction for us is the creation of varieties suitable for industrial processing. Currently, the Zakhar potato variety is undergoing state variety testing and is showing good preliminary results. We hope that according to the results of the 2020 test, this variety will be zoned. The Kashtak potato variety - an intensive type - was submitted for state testing in 2018.
In 2019, a new variety, resistant to cancer and nematode, under the working name "Albatross" is being prepared for transfer to the State Inspectorate. This variety has a yield of 50 tons per hectare, starchiness - 18 percent, excellent taste. High rates of resistance to disease, and excellent keeping quality during storage.
One of the trends of modern breeding is the creation of varieties with colored tuber pulp, continued Nikolai Glaz. - One of such samples is planned for transfer to testing in the near future. The achievements of the potato institute are of great interest to the population of the Chelyabinsk region. Consumers appreciate the high palatability of our varieties. Maintaining high seed qualities of potato planting tubers is ensured by meristemic improvement and original seed production.
Among the varieties bred in YUKNIISK in recent years and undergoing state variety testing, it is worth mentioning Kuzovok, Bracelet, Cavalier, Itzil. These varieties are positioned as resistant to disease and with good preservation.
Today, potato enterprises grow mainly Nevsky potatoes - more than half of the total structure of industrial plantings in the Chelyabinsk region - 1549 hectares. Varieties developed by UNIISK occupy a more modest share - the Tarasov variety - 22 hectares, the Spiridon variety - only 5 hectares. The total number of varieties that are currently grown in the Chelyabinsk region is 25, of which only five varieties are zoned for cultivation in the zone of the Southern Urals. In addition to Nevsky, the largest plantings are occupied by the varieties Romano and Rosara, Dutch and German breeding, respectively.
The fact that it is necessary to increase the production of potato seeds, said in his speech the head of the department of plant growing and small forms of farming of the regional ministry of agriculture Yuri Zasypkin. He noted that last year the South Ural Institute of Horticulture and Potato was reorganized by joining the Ural Agricultural Research Center as a branch and, in connection with this, received a new impetus for further development.
“According to the forecast balance, about 2019 thousand tons of potatoes will be grown in agricultural enterprises in 120,” said Yuri Zasypkin. - This volume is enough to ensure the social sphere and the population of the region, taking into account imported products. Potato production is concentrated mainly in areas near Chelyabinsk - these are Argayash, Sosnovsky and Krasnoarmeysky areas. They account for more than 75% of the total potato production in the region. Stable large areas under potatoes in the agricultural holding company Krasnoarmeyskoye (400 ha), agricultural complex Chernovskaya (400 ha), collective farms Mursalov - (270 ha), OJSC State Farm Akbashevsky (250 ha). The largest area for planting potatoes - in the farm of Makhmadov - more than 600 hectares, this farm is also today a partner of our Institute of Potato.
Yuri Zasypkin told the seminar participants in detail about the current state support for potato growing enterprises. Potato growers can take advantage of unrelated support: in the field of growing seed potatoes and open field vegetables, the regional budget provides for 2019 million rubles in 23, in the direction of growing food potatoes and oilseeds - 35 million. To subsidize elite seed production - 101 million rubles. In addition, the budget provides for state support for the acquisition of agricultural machinery in an annual amount of 200 million rubles, subsidies for the construction of agricultural facilities, for example, potato storages, in the amount of 115 million rubles. The total amount of state support for the purchase of mineral fertilizers is 40 million rubles, for the return of arable land to agricultural circulation - 30 million rubles.
During the seminar, the most important topic of protecting potatoes from various diseases: late blight, nematodes, alternariosis and others, was raised. About Bayer products that effectively resist disease, Lyudmila Kuznetsova, the regional representative of the company in the Chelyabinsk region, reported. She spoke about fungicides that are effective against a range of potato diseases, as well as against weeds.
О фитосанитарном состоянии посадок картофеля на Южном Урале в 2019 году рассказала участникам семинара начальник отдела защиты растений филиала ФГБУ «Россельхозцентр» по Челябинской области Ксения Ванина. В числе спикеров также были заместитель руководителя Уральского НИИ сельского хозяйства (г. Екатеринбург), кандидат сельхознаук Александр Шанин.
He spoke about the situation with potato breeding in the Urals Federal District and in Russia as a whole. Dr. Selkhoznauk Alexander Mushinsky informed the audience about the results of the varietal test of potatoes of the YuUNIISK selection in the steppe zone of the Orenburg region.
Within the framework of the seminar, its participants visited pilot plots on the fields of UNIISK, where they examined the experimental plantings of various varieties of potatoes and tasted dishes prepared from this potato.
Press-center Ministry of Agriculture