Potatoes - what you plant is what you gather. What to look for when growing a second bread in order to achieve high yields
In 2018, 28 varieties of potatoes were planted in the Vladimir Region, among which the largest varieties were such as: Lady Claire (1890,5 tons), Brook (1547 tons), Luck (1000 tons), Newton (425 tons), Hermes (373 tons), Saturn (275 tons), Rosara (249 tons).
Specialists from the regional and central departments of the FSBI Rosselkhoztsentr branch in the Vladimir Region checked 8107,4 tons of potato seed material, of which 6128,4 tons (76%) are conditional. For comparison, in the same period last year, 7135,3 tons of tested potato seed material were accounted for, of which only 63% were conditional.
The largest amount of seed is in Melenkovsky (2872 tons), Gus-Khrustalny (1485 tons), Murom (1300 tons) areas. In general, the region is provided with seed potatoes for 78% and basically it is 1-2 reproduction material (PC1-PC2 4648 tons).
Specialists of the Russian Agricultural Center determine the quality of potatoes using tuber analysis, which includes examination of tubers for the presence of viral and bacterial diseases, as well as for belonging to a particular variety.
In the photo, a tuber analysis of Lady Claire potatoes with pest damage ...
... and defeat potatoes with dry rot.
On the eve of the new summer season, the specialists of the Vladimir Rosselkhoztsentr remind of the need for variety-changing and variety-updating of seed material.
Change of variety is required in case of dissatisfaction with the qualities of the variety used. For example, it can be susceptibility to diseases, low productivity and taste characteristics, etc. But if a variety fully satisfies, then it should be updated periodically in order to avoid negative signs that arise and accumulate during reproduction. So in the first years of cultivation, the variety has a maximum of genetic potential.
However, the problem of low productivity can arise even with the correct selection of varieties and reproduction. In this case, it is necessary to check the soil for the presence of cysts of golden potato nematode (lat.Globodera rostochiensis).
In the Vladimir region, foci of golden potato nematodes were identified in 12 districts (Aleksandrovsky, Gus-Khrustalny, Kameshkovsky, Kirzhachsky, Kolchuginsky, Kovrovsky, Melenkovsky, Muromsky, Petushinsky, Sobinsky, Sudogodsky, Suzdalsky, Vladimir). By orders of the Governor of the Vladimir Region, quarantine was imposed on these territories.
Potato globoderosis is one of the serious diseases of this valuable crop. Outwardly, the symptoms of the disease are manifested in a slowdown in plant growth already in the early stages of ontogenesis, yellowing of the tops with drying of the lower and withering of the upper leaves, curvature of the stems. The roots of infected plants are brown in color, shorter than normal and have many lateral roots. Thus, the plant suffers from a lack of water and nutrients.
When examining the fields, the foci of glauberosis are often located in the form of one or more spots with oppressed yellowish plants. With the annual cultivation of susceptible varieties of potatoes from the beginning of infection to the time of visual detection of the outbreak takes 5-6 years.
With an increase in the level of infection, the potato crop decreases, its quality deteriorates (the number and weight of tubers decreases). The percentage of starch and the amount of vitamin C in tubers is significantly reduced. The crop shortage from potato globose disease averages 10%, and in the foci of severe damage to potato plantings by a nematode, from 30 to 60% or more. In such cases, nematode invasion of potatoes is often exacerbated by the action of concomitant pathogenic microorganisms, bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
The fight against the potato nematode is very difficult due to the parasite’s high adaptability to the living conditions, namely, the narrow specialization of the globera (family of nightshade), long-term (10-15 years) cyst viability in the absence of the host plant.
Crop rotation is a very effective means of combating potato nematodes. On infected soils, potatoes are grown no more often than after 4-5 years. It is better to alternate potatoes with crops that are not affected by this type of nematodes (cabbage, clover, perennial herbs, dill, lettuce, peas, beans, etc.).
Effective cultivation of early varieties. In this case, crop losses are reduced, since during early harvesting the parasite does not have time to complete its life cycle and give offspring. The cultivation of nematoderesistant varieties of potatoes can reduce soil contamination with a nematode by 85-90%. (Parasitic nematodes of plants and insects / Edited by M.D. Sonin - M .: Nauka. 2004.)
Currently, there are about 257 nematodeustivnye, zoned in the Central region (which includes the Vladimir region) varieties (State register of selection achievements allowed for use https://reestr.gossort.com/).
Among them, the most popular varieties are: Openwork, Barin, Breeze, Vectar Belorussky, Explosive, Vineta, Gala, Impala, Labella, Latona, Lady Claire, Manifesto, Meteor, Ragneda, Red Scarlett, Saturn, Scarb, Luck, Uladar and others.
(Author: Irina Potapova - Leading Agronomist of the Seed Production Department, Public Relations Specialist of the FSBI Rosselkhoztsentr Branch in the Vladimir Region).