Ekaterina Kudashkina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Salinization of water and soil These are serious challenges in modern crop production. According to FAO forecasts, by 2050, 50% of agricultural land in the world will be affected by salinity. Soil salinization is the accumulation of an excess amount of soluble salts in the soil solution, leading to a decrease in fertility. Basically, it is about soil degradation. The high concentration of salts has a negative effect primarily on the root system of plants. Due to the fact that the external osmotic pressure of the soil solution becomes higher relative to the osmotic pressure inside the plants, the ability of plants to absorb water and nutrients from the outside decreases, and their deficiency occurs - even in well-moistened soil.
On saline soils, a high concentration of sodium cations prevents the accumulation of other cations, including those necessary for plant life, such as calcium and potassium. High concentration of Na+ and/or Cl— inhibits photosynthesis. Chloride salinization is one of the most dangerous for plants.
Salinity affects the growth and development of plants at all stages, from germination to maturation, but especially strongly in the critical phases of ontogeny. The consequences of exposure can be different: from a decrease in the size of seedlings to the complete death of plants.
Solution. Salinity can be dealt with by agrotechnical and breeding methods. Selection of agricultural crops for salt tolerance is a rather long and costly path, it is for the future, because the problem of salinity will not disappear anywhere in the coming years. The agrotechnical method includes reclamation processes (for example, the application of phosphogypsum is necessary, but in the context of an increase in the cost of logistics and fuel and lubricants, a very costly step) and fertigation (the use of various soil top dressings and fertilizers that help reduce salinity of water and soil, for example: I often meet with practice introduction of ammonium nitrate or phosphoric acid with drip irrigation).
From experience with potatoes: A great way to deal with surface soil salinization and prevent aggravation of the situation in irrigated areas is to fertigation with the application of fertilizer Agriful Plus. Agriful Plus is a liquid fertilizer to neutralize soil salinity and a root biostimulant based on fulvic acids.
We have clearly seen the effectiveness of the drug in one of the largest farms in the Rostov region.
Energia LLC is the flagship enterprise of the region. It grows a wide range of crops, has its own processing and animal husbandry. Even in the arid conditions of the east of the Rostov region, the farm holds the lead in terms of winter wheat yield.
In 2020, potatoes were added Agriful Plus (pH of the preparation - 4,7) per drop at the rate of 5 liters per hectare for the growing season.
After the first application in the budding phase at a dosage of 2,5 l / ha (dissolved in a barrel per 1000 liters of water and applied through a drop, photo 1), surface desalinization of the soil occurred. As a result, salt stains on drip irrigation disappeared in 3 days.
The effect was visible immediately (photo 2). On the left side, the ridges were absolutely clean, and on the right, the salt spots remained the same.
The second and third application of soil biofeeding Agriful Plus per drop was 1,25 l/ha during the period of budding - flowering and after flowering, respectively (photo 3).
A video review of an agronomist-vegetable grower is available on our YouTube channel "Agroliga".
What are the competitive advantages of Agriful Plus? The drug is 100% vegetable origin, it is a completely organic product.
This is the most rich in fulvic acids (25%) biofeed in our fertilizer line.
Fulvic acids increase the activity of biological microflora and develop the root system. They are easily soluble in soil moisture and are able to form with mono- and divalent cations (for example, with K+, Na+, NH4+, That2+, Mg2+) water-soluble salts, which reduces soil salinity, and plants better absorb nutrients. However, in a highly alkaline environment (pH>10), part of the fulvic acids can be precipitated by calcium and barium ions. With trivalent cations (Fe3+ and Al3+) fulvic acids can precipitate or form water-soluble complex compounds, but I have never seen such a soil or water pH in practice. The highest water pH was observed in the Rostov region - 8,5.
Agriful Plus also includes betaines. They help regulate osmotic pressure and improve nutrient availability. In addition, betaines enhance the ability of the root system to absorb water, increase plant resistance to extreme high and low temperatures, and stimulate the synthesis of chlorophyll.
Polisaharidы are a source of energy, also increase the degree of penetration of nutrients and water into plant cells and improve the quality of tubers and roots.
Together, polysaccharides, a complex of vitamins and an increased content of organic substances (45%) Agriful Plus regenerate the development of soil microflora and restore fertility. From observations, the soil became looser.
The recommended doses of Agriful Plus for the growing season are 5-10 l/ha, which is cost-effective and efficient. Fertigation with the use of Agriful Plus in combination with the foliar nutrition scheme on potatoes made it possible to save an additional 4,7 t/ha relative to the economic option. The yield of BP-808 potatoes in the pilot plot was 42,5 t/ha, and the net profit was 42 rubles/ha (excluding investment).
Agriful Plus can also be applied under surface irrigation: we had experience of applying it at a dosage of 2,5 l/ha with large-drop nozzles, with a working fluid flow rate of 300 l/ha, after which the watering machine was turned on. Thus, a day passed until the car reached the end of the circle, and there were no burns.
Summing up, I would like to once again draw the reader's attention to two important points.
- Agritecno preparations, including Agriful Plus, have international certificates Ecocert, OMRI, which confirms the possibility of using these products in environmentally friendly agriculture.
- The application of Agriful Plus with drip irrigation does not replace soil reclamation. This is a great way to keep soil salinity from getting worse during the growing season. The problems of soil salinization require planned, integrated and systematic work.
In this article, we tried to explain the mechanism of action of the drug Agriful Plus, because only having scientifically based information and proven results, you can make the right choice in favor of certain products.
We express our gratitude to the staff of the farm represented by the head Vladimir Vasilievich Bukhtiyarov for an innovative approach to agricultural technologies and effective interaction.
More articles about the experience of using Agritecno preparations can be found on the website www.agroliga.ru in the Media section.