The scandal surrounding a farmer who decided to fertilize his fields with organic fertilizers has recently flared up in the Sverdlovsk region.
Andrei Savchenko, the founder of one of the region’s oldest peasant farms, is accused of the “mush genocide” of the local population: following the stinky fertilizer brought in from one of the poultry farms, nearby villages were attacked by clouds of insects. The farmer’s activities are now being monitored by the environmental prosecutor’s office, Rosselkhoznadzor, Rospotrebnadzor and even the investigative committee.
Savchenko is not alone in this: over the past year, up to a dozen Ural farmers who risked to use their lands to increase the fertility of their lands fell on a pencil to supervisory authorities organics based on bird droppings. And the amount of penalties accrued to him is approaching an astronomical figure for small agricultural producers - 70 billion rubles. Peasants say: since the waste of animal husbandry and poultry farming was recognized as hazardous substances and equated by class of harmfulness with diesel fuel and phosphates, it became risky even to stutter about the once familiar natural fertilizers.
The fly knows
“And the year did not last how the inspections began,” Andrei Savchenko annoyingly comments on the result of his agrarian initiative.
The peasant has been counting since the fall of last year, when he brought fertilizers from the poultry farm. More precisely, a dried substrate that has already passed, as required by sanitary standards, is treated - disinfected. To become a full-fledged fertilizer, the product, mixed with straw, lay for the winter at the edge of the field, and in the spring it was sown in the ground. The technology, although simple, has been tested for centuries. Only this time it crashed - hordes of flies were born in fertilized land. And flew to the nearest village Lazorevy.
- I think I’ve made a mistake with the calculations. I didn’t guess with the warm spring, I was late for a day or two with plowing - here the flies climbed, Savchenko analyzes his mistakes.
We arrived on the battlefield when a series of inspectors had already passed here. The field was plowed, the territory along the roads was treated with chemicals. The curb seemed black from the fallen insects, but all the same, many flies atypically buzzed around. “Yes, I know them all in person!” What a village without flies? ” - joked Savchenko. He spoke reluctantly about what had happened, but he was ready to show the shovel, which he dug up his first farm plot in 1992, and the scale of the current farm - 500 hectares of fields.
- Earth needs recharge. From intensive exploitation, it becomes poorer. When you get 30-35 tons of potatoes per hectare, chemistry alone will not work to compensate for the whole complex of nutrients. Soil needs organic matter, worm bugs, everything that restores the fertile layer. I need to make six tons of organic matter per hectare, I managed to only four and then got it on my hands, ”the farmer explains. - The Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation also supports this position: the soil needs organic matter, the State Duma of the Russian Federation has made proposals for amendments to the federal law on the management of hazardous waste, excluding organic fertilizers from among hazardous substances.
The first legislative acts on the inclusion of animal manure and bird droppings in the 3rd and 4th classes of especially hazardous waste appeared in 2011. Five years later, they legalized the requirement of licensing the activities of agricultural enterprises for the storage and processing of organics. And all these years, both in the village and in federal departments, disputes have not abated: what gives out domestic animals - fertilizer or waste?
Most farmers still consider the adopted regulations “harmful stupidity”, which negatively affects not only the current state of farms, but also the future food security of the country. One of the reasons: obtaining permits for the right to use natural good is a process unreasonably long and expensive. So, the cost of a license for the storage and processing of organic waste starts from 100 thousand and reaches 1,5 million rubles. The fines for violations are simply ruinous.
At the same time, none of the peasants deny, even urban gardeners know this: fresh manure is harmful to plants, it can burn the earth no worse than chemistry, making it a lifeless desert. In theory, the adopted laws should have encouraged agricultural producers to process waste into valuable fertilizer. But that did not happen. The results of a recent monitoring of the Sverdlovsk Union of Small and Medium Enterprises showed that not a single agricultural enterprise in the region has a license to work with livestock and poultry waste.
The land is getting poorer due to intensive exploitation. When you get 30-35 tons of potatoes per hectare, chemistry alone will not work to compensate for the whole complex of nutrients.
Last year, 1,48 million tons of agricultural waste was generated in the Middle Urals. Most of them - 79,8 percent - were produced by two dozen of the largest livestock and poultry farms. There are 141 registered sites in the region for the disposal of animal and bird waste. Landfills occupy more than 200 hectares, they accumulated 200 thousand tons of this good. At the same time, 28 sites are ownerless.
In August last year, the court recovered a fine from the Polevskoye agricultural enterprise for illegal handling of agricultural waste. And it still got off easily: initially the fine exceeded 43,1 million. In mid-October, a decision came into force to recover 160 million from the Nizhny Tagil poultry farm. The other day, her leadership has made it possible to pay this amount in installments. The Reftinskaya poultry farm was also blacklisted, and regulatory authorities accused it of causing damage to the soil by 22 million rubles.
Natural semi-finished product
Reports that Russian researchers have developed yet another effective technology for processing livestock and poultry wastes appear quite often. For example, the other day, Stavropol scientists announced that they were able to obtain biogas, eco-fertilizers in the form of granules and liquid biologically active fertilizers for the crop industry. These products increase crop yields by almost a third.
But the information on the implementation of modern technologies for processing organics is much less. Business is not in a hurry to invest in production “with a bite”, considering it not too profitable. According to our data, in the Ural Federal District, only in the Chelyabinsk region on the livestock site of one of the largest meat producers in the region a year ago they launched a project to produce high-grade fertilizer from manure. Even at the recently modernized large Borovskaya poultry farm in the Tyumen region, no money was allocated for the purchase of equipment for the processing and disposal of waste. As a result, the renewed enterprise faces fines for old sins with waste.
Breeders and poultry breeders in this situation found a way out unexpected for supervisory authorities. Investing in a complete processing using innovative technologies, they began to produce a product with a new name - “agrochemical”. This is a kind of prefabricated fertilizer. To the ideal standards, guaranteeing the absence of flies and smell, the substance does not reach, but it underwent the necessary disinfection treatment and lay down, becoming safe for nature.
Actually, the Ural farmers are trying to use this product. So far, as we see, is not very successful. But, according to Andrey Savchenko, the farmers have no other way out - the fertility of the fields is not infinite.
“Most likely, we are on the path to understanding the problem,” the farmer philosophically concluded in parting.
Viktor Kasatikov, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, leading employee of the All-Russian Research Institute of Organic Fertilizers and Peat:
- It’s one thing when it comes to large pig farms or poultry farms, another is a farmer who produces a ton of manure in a year, and for the full processing of this organic matter he needs to invest at least a million rubles. Moreover, he will be able to get a product ready for sale, made in accordance with all state standards, in a year and a half. The solution to this issue must be approached differentially. To think over budget subsidies for small agricultural producers in order to stimulate the proper work with the organic sector. But, unfortunately, while it is easier for supervisory authorities to fine, than to seek the launch of an effective processing process.
The Chinese authorities decided to import peat from Russia to increase the fertility of their fields. Intensive agricultural production, based on the widespread use of chemical fertilizers and drugs that stimulate growth and maturation, has led to large-scale soil depletion in China. According to the All-Russian Research Institute of Organic Fertilizers and Peat, representatives of the Celestial Empire are now actively interested in technologies for processing and using different types of organics. Recently, the Ural enterprise signed a long-term contract for $ 160 million for the supply of peat to China. Volumes can reach 600 thousand cubic meters per year.
Currently, in all categories of farms in Russia 294 million tons of manure and litter are formed, and by 2030 the figure can reach 314 million tons. But the volume of use of organic fertilizers is insufficient even for simple reproduction of the fertility of arable land. Their application stopped at 53 million tons per year, or less than one ton per hectare of sown area, which is only 10 percent of the need.
A source: https://agrovesti.net