ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF POTATO BREEDING IN THE NOVOSIBIRSK REGION
Why are potato varieties created by Novosibirsk breeders interesting? What tasks do scientists set themselves today? How do they assess the prospects of their work?
The journal "Potato System" addressed all these questions to the famous expert on potatoes, leading researcher of the Federal Research Center "Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the SB RAS", Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Nikolai Polukhin.
In 1978, Siberian breeders created the variety LINA: high-yielding and still unmatched in overall disease resistance. Seed material of this variety is in great demand, it is almost "on the vine" purchased by Far Eastern farms (in particular, from the Amur region). Farmers say that only Lina can withstand the seaside load: a large amount of rainfall, constant high humidity and, accordingly, late blight.
Five years later, the variety appeared SAFO... It has proven itself very well when grown on personal plots: tasty, large tubers. Summer residents took it with pleasure.
But both of these varieties are mid-early, and in Siberian conditions, early ones are in great demand. JNA: it forms the harvest by July 20, for the local climate this is an excellent result. The next achievement of Novosibirsk breeders is the variety SILK: mid-season, with excellent taste (Adretta is in his blood, and this is an unrivaled leader in terms of taste). It also has a high yield.
- Nikolai Ivanovich, are potatoes really an important crop for the Novosibirsk region?
Potatoes are important for the whole of Russia, it is not for nothing that they call it "the second bread". And for the inhabitants of Siberia and the Far East, he often served as the first bread. The level of potato consumption in these regions is still higher than in the Urals and the European part of the country.
I am convinced that the most delicious potatoes grow in Siberia, since the climate of our region is favorable for its production. But the requirements for the product are also more serious.
- Do breeders have something to work on?
Certainly. And we have always paid great attention to this direction. Potato breeding in the Novosibirsk region began to be engaged more than fifty years ago. This work began at the institute, Galina Petrovna Shushakova.
- Many farmers in modern conditions are trying to adapt to the requirements of retail chains and when choosing a variety focus on the appearance, suitability for long-term storage, and not on the taste of tubers. Do Novosibirsk breeders take this trend into account?
For a long time, our breeding did not pay attention to external criteria (tuber shape, skin color, depth of eyes), so local varieties were inferior in popularity to more “beautiful” foreign competitors.
Now breeders are trying to preserve the advantages of the Siberian potato, adding a little "commerce" to the piggy bank of advantages. So, the varieties Sokur and Adar are under strain testing. Both delicious and beautiful, we have high hopes for them.
We are preparing two more promising varieties for transfer for variety trials in 2021: Alka and hybrid 154 (we have not yet come up with a name).
- What other parameters will the new Siberian varieties be distinguished by?
We are working to ensure that our varieties are distinguished by high yields, excellent taste, disease resistance, suitability for long-term storage.
- It is planned to build a plant for the production of chips of the company in the Novosibirsk region PepsiCo... This means that varieties for processing will be in demand. Is this also an important area for breeding in the region?
Our line of varieties includes those that are suitable for processing into dry potatoes and chips: Sappho, Zlatka, Lina. And, of course, work in this direction will continue, although it must be borne in mind that creating a variety for processing is a very difficult task.
- The Siberian Research Institute of Plant Production and Breeding is now a branch of the Federal Research Center "Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS". Has anything changed in the work of the breeders of the research institute after joining the Federal Research Center?
For many years, breeding work at the Research Institute was carried out in a traditional way, based on interspecific and intraspecific hybridization. Now we have moved to a higher level. Together with the staff of the laboratory of genomic editing of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, we use methods of marker-oriented selection. Applying these methods dramatically speeds up the delivery of results. I think that this year we will already be testing the first hybrids created using this technology.
- The Siberian Research Institute of Plant Growing and Breeding is famous for its rich collection of potato varieties. Tell us more about it.
Having an extensive collection of initial samples allows us to conduct more targeted breeding work and at a very high level. Our collection numbers 338 in vitro samples, there are 185 varieties, of which 95 are rehabilitated. In the selection we also use "savages", of which we have 35 samples. We also store 135 samples from the VIR collection (samples received under the KNTP program "Development of breeding and seed production in Russia").
The resources of our collection are often used by breeders of scientific organizations of the Siberian Federal District (Omsk, Kemerovo, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk, etc.), if they need some form vitro, we can provide almost any order.
- SibNIIRS breeders receive high reproductive potato seed. How are these products sold?
We multiply the seed material to the super-super-elite and sell these products only to seed farms. In the Novosibirsk region we cooperate with the Agros firm and its research and production division of the Michurinets SPH. We also supply seeds to seed enterprises in the Altai Territory and Primorye.
This year we grow seed potatoes of our varieties Lina and Zlatka for sale. We begin to multiply Sokur a little (we hope that it will be zoned). In addition, we multiply varieties that are in demand among potato producers in the region and gardeners: Rosara, Red Scarlett, Adretta, for which our institute is the originator. We sell only certified high-quality material (certificates are issued by the Russian Agricultural Center based on the results of PCR analysis of tubers). Without this, nowhere. We have very strict implementation regulations in Siberia.
- The Siberian Research Institute of Plant Production and Breeding is a member of the subprogram "Development of potato breeding and seed production in the Russian Federation" of the Federal Scientific and Technical Program for the Development of Agriculture for 2017-2025. Tell us what tasks are facing breeders and what is the significance of participation in this subprogram for the institute?
Our main tasks are: creating high-yielding varieties with characteristics that meet modern production and consumption requirements, maintaining and expanding the collection for selection vitro and in vivo, production of starting material (minitubers) at aeroponic and hydroponic installations in an amount that ensures the seed production process (in 2019 - 20 thousand pieces; in 2020 - 23 thousand pieces, in 2021 - 25 thousand pieces); ensuring the production of seed potatoes of the super-super-elite category (in 2020 - 48 tons, in subsequent years - 50 tons).
I can note that the implementation of the subroutine is very important for us. Having become its participants, we received strong support from the state. The grant funds were used to completely renew the material and technical base: they reconstructed the biotechnological laboratory, installed aeroponic and hydroponic plants for the production of minitubers, purchased cutters, bed-formers, planters, and a combine. We are now completing the construction of a modern storage facility. Potato breeding at SibNIIRS today is carried out at a modern level, and our scientists have a strong feeling that potatoes are still held in high esteem in our country.
Medium early grade. Marketable yield 213-496 c / ha. The tuber is oval. The eyes are few in number, medium-deep. The pulp is white. The mass of the commercial tuber is 105-250 g. The peel is smooth, yellow. Starch content 11,2-18,5%.
Resistant to potato cancer and phytophthorosis in tops and tubers. Susceptible to golden potato nematode.
The tubers are suitable for the production of dry potatoes and chips.
Medium early grade. Marketable yield 183-395 c / ha. The tuber is oval with small eyes. The rind is light beige. The pulp is creamy. The mass of the marketable tuber is 111-232 g. The starch content is 12,7-16,7%.
Resistant to the causative agent of potato cancer, golden potato cyst nematode, wrinkled and banded mosaic, leaf-rolling virus. The tubers are suitable for the production of dry potatoes and chips.
Mid-season variety. Marketable yield 162-406 c / ha.
The tuber is rounded with an average depth of eyes. The peel is yellow. The pulp is light yellow. The mass of the commercial tuber is 109-160 g. The starch content is 15,7-18,0%.
Resistant to potato cancer, wrinkled mosaic and leaf roll virus. Moderately susceptible to tops and moderately resistant to late blight in tubers. Affected by a nematode.
The tubers are suitable for the production of dry potatoes and chips.
Medium early grade. It is under state variety testing.
The tuber is oval in shape, with superficial eyes. The peel is red. The pulp is yellow.
It has a high starch content and is resistant to viral diseases.
Early ripe variety. Marketable yield 196-360 c / ha.
The tuber is oval-rounded with small eyes. The rind is light beige. The pulp is light yellow. Marketable tuber weight 110-200 g.
The starch content of 14,3-15,1%.
Resistant to the causative agent of potato cancer, golden potato cyst nematode, wrinkled and banded mosaic, leaf-rolling virus.