Territory: 95,5 thousand square meters km
Population: 2 million 709 thousand people
Geographical position: The region is located in the southeast of Western Siberia. It borders on the Tomsk Region in the north, the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Republic of Khakassia in the east, the Gorny Altai Republic and the Altai Territory in the south, and the Novosibirsk Region in the west.
Climate: sharply continental. Winter is cold and long, summer is short and warm. The average monthly air temperature in January is from -18 to -22 ° C, in July from + 17 ° C to + 22 ° C. The highest air temperatures reach in summer (+ 38 ° С), the lowest - in winter (in the south of the region down to -54 ° С, in the north up to -57 ° С). The amount of precipitation is from 300 to 500 mm per year, in mountainous areas - up to 900 mm per year.
Relief: Mountain taiga, forest-steppe and steppe landscapes are represented in the region. The north of the region is the southeastern part of the West Siberian Plain, the east and northeast are the Kuznetsk Alatau Mountains, the southwest are the Salair Ridge, the south are the ridges of the Mountain Shoria, the central part is the Kuznetsk Basin.
Soils: the diversity of topography and climate creates a diversity of soil and vegetation cover. The largest area is occupied by varieties of sod-podzolic soils, chernozems prevail in the Kuznetsk depression.
Agricultural land area: 2,66 million ha, of which arable land - 1,47 million ha.
2017 SEASON. PRODUCTION AND YIELD GROWTH
In 2017, the potato planting area in the Kemerovo region amounted to 45,7 thousand ha, gross harvest - 723 thousand tons with an average yield of 158 kg / ha. As follows from the statistics, potato production compared to 2015-2016. increased by 3% with an average yield increase of 13%.
Currently in the Kemerovo region is engaged in growing potatoes 41 farms. But the main share of the crop (76%) falls on household plots of citizens. As throughout Russia, in the Kuzbass there is a tendency among the population to reduce potato planting areas (by 10% over the past five years), but crop yields and, consequently, gross potato harvest in private households are growing (by 38% and 23%, respectively).
The Potato Union estimates the average annual consumption of potatoes in Russia at 80 kg per person per year, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - at 130 kg per person.
According to Kemerovostat, at the beginning of 2017, the population in the Kemerovo region was 2,709 million people (including young children). Therefore, even taking into account the maximum estimate of consumption (130 kg per person / year), Kuzbass at the end of 2017 provided itself with potatoes by 205,3%.
TRAINING SYSTEM FOR THE INDUSTRY
Training for the potato industry in the Kemerovo region is carried out in the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Kemerovo State Agricultural Institute" (FSBEI HE Kemerovo State Agricultural Institute). This institution provides training in the specialty "Agronomy" both under the secondary vocational education program and undergraduate programs (profiles "Production Technology of Crop Production", "Technology of Production, Storage and Processing of Crop Production", "Technical Systems in Agribusiness") and master's programs .
Every year, the Faculty of Agricultural Technology of the Kemerovo State Agricultural Institute produces about 35 agronomists (full-time and part-time).
Today in the Kemerovo region there are 52 vegetable stores with a total capacity of one-time storage of 162,9 thousand tons. Considering that 76% of the potato crop is grown and, therefore, stored by the population independently, the available storage facilities are quite enough for the industrial sector.
As a rule, agricultural producers build new storages in the hope of increasing the planting area and, accordingly, the potato harvest. So, the undisputed leader in Kuzbass in terms of the total area of potato fields and potato harvesting - KDV-Agro LLC - plans to increase the planted area from 2,3 to 3 thousand ha. For this, the company is building a new potato storage with a capacity of 12 thousand tons, its commissioning is scheduled for 2018.
It will be a modern large-scale complex, equipped with the latest technology - the necessary temperature and humidity will be maintained in it automatically.
In total, in 2018 in Kuzbass two modern potato storages with a total capacity of 14,5 thousand tons are planned to be commissioned, in 2019 - two more vegetable storages with a capacity of 1,8 thousand tons.
SELECTION AND SEEDING
The Kemerovo Research Institute of Agriculture (a branch of the Siberian Federal Scientific Center for Agrobiotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences) has a laboratory for selection, biotechnology and agricultural technology of potatoes (head of the laboratory is Valentina Ivanovna Kulikova, candidate of agricultural sciences, associate professor). The main activities of the laboratory are selection and original seed production of potatoes.
The basis of potato breeding is the systematic study and selection of sources of valuable traits to create varieties with a set of economically useful traits. For this, more than 150 potato samples of the world collection of the All-Russian Institute of Plant Growing (VIR) are studied annually. The work on creating potato varieties takes place according to the full scheme of the selection process in the following areas:
- high yield;
- resistance to the most common fungal and viral diseases;
- resistance to golden potato nematode;
- resistance to the Colorado potato beetle;
- suitability for mechanized cultivation;
Lyubava - An early variety of tableware. The tubers are red, oval-round, the flesh is white. Eyes of medium depth. Productivity up to 55 t / ha. Marketability 90-96%. The mass of marketable tuber is 120-220 g. The starch content is 12-16%. Resistant to potato cancer. It responds well to the application of organic and mineral fertilizers, watering. Good taste. Grade value: possesses an increased dormant period, high keeping quality, high productivity of early potatoes (maximum at irrigation 60 t / ha).
The deceiver - mid-early table variety. The tubers are white, rounded oval, white flesh. Eyes of medium depth. Productivity up to 60 t / ha. The mass of marketable tubers is 100-110 g. Marketability is 86-91%. The starch content is 13-15%. Relatively resistant to late blight, scab ordinary, alternariosis. Grade value: weakly expressed by golden potato nematode, has a high cleansing ability of soil from golden potato nematode, and an increased dormancy period.
To speed up the breeding process and quickly introduce new varieties into production, breeding is carried out using biotechnological methods (hybridization on healthy material, improvement of promising hybrids using tissue culture, accelerated in vitro propagation, viral diagnosis of hybrid material by ELISA).
Since 2016, work has been organized using marker assisted selection, for which samples of the collection, new varieties and promising hybrids determine the presence of DNA markers of resistance to pathogens and pests: Y and X viruses of potato, golden potato nematode (Globodera rostochiensis Woll), pale nematode (Globodera pallida), potato cancer (Synchytrium endobioticum).
ORIGINAL POTATO SEED BREEDING
Original seed production is carried out with potato varieties included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements in the tenth region: Nevsky, Lyubava, Tuleyevsky, Kuznechanka, Tanay and Kemerovochanin.
Tuleevsky - mid-early table variety. The color of tubers and pulp is yellow, the shape is oval. Eyes are superficial. Productivity up to 48 t / ha. The mass of commodity tuber is 122; marketability is 270-88%. The starch content is 99-12%. Resistant to cancer. Relatively resistant to late blight, scab, alternariosis. Grade value: excellent taste, pleasant taste and friable consistency of pulp, high stable yield.
KUZEZHANKA - medium - early grade tableware. The tuber is round-oval, smooth, red, white flesh. Eyes are superficial. The starch content of 12,5-16,3%. Productivity up to 46 t / ha. The mass of commodity tuber is 140-180 g. Marketability is 93-97%. Taste good. Relatively resistant to viruses, late blight, scab. Grade value: suitable for processing for crisp, maximum yield of 104,2 t / ha, attractive appearance.
- Accelerated propagation of healthy raw potato material by microclonal cuttings in vitro culture, up to 5 thousand plants annually.
- Improving varieties by the apical meristem method in combination with thermo and chemotherapy, the Bank of Healthy Potato Varieties has 29 varieties.
- Accelerated propagation of healthy potato starting material in an in vivo culture, up to 11 thousand plants annually.
- Obtaining the initial tuber material of potatoes (minicubers), up to 60 thousand tubers annually.
- Annual production of up to 70,0 tons of potato seed of the first field generation and up to 200,0 tons of super-super-elite class.
- Diagnosis for the presence of hidden pathogenesis (viruses, bacterioses) by ELISA at all stages of recovery and reproduction.
The original seed material of potatoes produced by the Kemerovo Research Institute of Agriculture was widely distributed not only in the farms of the Kemerovo region, but also in the Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Amur, Tyumen, Irkutsk, Tver, Ulyanovsk and Chelyabinsk regions; in Krasnoyarsk, Altai territories; republics of Khakassia, Buryatia, Tuva.
In the Kemerovo Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture (a branch of the Siberian Scientific Center for Scientific Research, Russian Academy of Sciences), potato varieties have been created that are characterized by their high yield, plasticity, and disease resistance.
According to the results of 2017, Vesna LLC became the leader in productivity in the Kemerovo region (the head is Nikolai Petrovich Safonov), the company achieved indicators of 272,1 c / ha.
Over the course of several years, KDV-Agro LLC (part of KDV Group, head of KDV-Agro - Viktor Vasilyevich Beskorovaev) has occupied the first place in terms of the area of potato fields and the volume of harvest: in 2017, the company collected 2311 tons of potatoes.
It is worth noting that the KDV Group potatoes are processed here, on the spot: in 2011, a separate workshop with an adjacent storage was built on the territory of KDV Yashkino LLC (another group company), in 2012 a modern line for the production of chips was installed, acquired four packaging machines. The volume of investments amounted to 2 billion rubles.
The production capacity of the line is 8,64 thousand tons per year. The company processes about 60 thousand tons of potatoes per year, the volume of production in 2015 is 6,404 thousand tons, in 2016 - 7,301 thousand tons, in 2017 - 8,17 thousand tons.
KDV Group emphasizes the advantages of efficient logistics: during the cultivation, harvesting, storage of potatoes and the production of chips in one region, transportation costs are minimized.
PROSPECTS FOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN THE REGION
The climatic conditions of the Kemerovo region favor the development of both seed and commercial potato growing. Most suitable for the region are varieties of early, mid-early and mid-late ripeness groups, with a vegetation period of 65-80 days.
The interest of farmers in this culture is supported by economic factors. Thus, the profitability of potato production remains one of the highest in crop production - according to 2017, this indicator amounted to + 87,2%. Market prices for potatoes have been growing recently - according to various estimates, in 2017, in Russia as a whole, the retail price increased by 9,46-24%. In the Kemerovo region, growth amounted to 13,9% (data from the Kemerovostat).
At the same time, potatoes are a socially important essential commodity; its threshold value of self-sufficiency in the doctrine of food security of the Russian Federation is defined as 95%. At the end of 2017, Russia's self-sufficiency in potatoes is estimated at 90,7% (data from the Ministry of Agriculture), which allows us to predict a favorable market situation.
FROM THE HISTORY
In 1942, on the Krasny Perekop collective farm of the Mariinsky district of the Kemerovo region, the link of Anna Kondratyevna Yutkina received a record potato crop of 1331 c / ha.
For this absolutely fantastic yield (still not surpassed by anyone in the world), potato growers were awarded the Stalin Prize (they received five thousand rubles). Women transferred this entire amount to the country's defense fund. And the link one, Anna Kondratyevna Yutkina, was awarded the Order of Lenin. On May 20, 1948, by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, she was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor.
It should be noted that in 1942 A.K. Yutkina broke her own world productivity record. Earlier, in 1939, the same team in the experimental plot of the Krasny Perekop collective farm collected 1217,28 centners of potato from one hectare, which exceeded the American world record that prevailed at that time by 117,8 centners. Anna Kondratyevna Yutkina was then awarded the Big Gold Medal of the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition, and her link is listed in the book of honor.
The Yutkina link continued to show high results, receiving mainly 700 c / ha of potatoes from their fields.
Scientists are still arguing about what caused record success. According to Sergei Sheshukov, director of the Mariinsk Historical Museum-Reserve, in addition to unique agricultural technology, the secret was hidden in the scientific developments of leading Soviet scientists. During the years of Stalinist repression, Mariinsk was the center of the Siblag.
YOU - mid-early table variety. The tubers are yellow, rounded oval, the skin is slightly mesh, the flesh is yellow. Eyes of medium depth, small in number. Productivity up to 63 t / ha. The mass of marketable tuber 100 g. Marketability 180-92%. The starch content of 98-13%. Medium susceptible to late blight and viruses. Grade value: resistant to cancer and golden potato nematode, drought-resistant, resistant to mechanical damage.
KEMEROVAN - mid-early table variety. The tubers are yellow, rounded oval, the skin is slightly mesh, the flesh is yellow. Productivity up to 58 t / ha. The starch content of 17,5%. The mass of marketable tuber is 95; Marketability is 19-90%. Average resistance to late blight. Grade value: resistant to cancer, golden potato nematode, to viruses, fusarium wilt and alternariosis, resistant to mechanical damage, high keeping quality.
MARIINSKY - medium-early, table appointment. The color of the flowers is red-violet, the tuber is red, the flesh is cream; the shape of the tuber is oval, the eyes are superficial, the peel is smooth. The starch content of 14-6%. Productivity 35,0-45,0 t / ha. The mass of commodity tuber is 80 g. Taste is good. Resistant to golden potato nematode. Relatively resistant to viruses, late blight, scab. Grade value: attractive appearance.
Convicted specialists from Moscow and Leningrad worked at a local experimental agricultural plant. They worked to obtain elite seeds, to develop agricultural technology for growing crops in Siberian conditions. By 1942, in the Mariinsky district there were control plots, orchards, berries and vineyards on an area of 50,5 hectares. With the disbandment of the Siblag in the early 1960s, the station ceased to exist.
In memory of the record in 2008, a monument to potatoes was erected in Mariinsk. It was created (carved from wood) by the local sculptor Yuri Mikhailov. Since then, every two years in the city is celebrated Potato Day.