Territory: 1 sq. M. km
Population: 3 people, of which 723% are city residents.
Geographical position: The Tyumen region is located in Western Siberia. It borders: in the south - with Kazakhstan, in the south-west - with the Kurgan region, in the west - with the Sverdlovsk region, in the north - with the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, in the east - with the Tomsk and Omsk regions.
Climate: sharply continental, with low air temperatures in winter, winds of significant speeds and excessive moisture in summer. The main distinctive features are the remoteness from the Atlantic Ocean, the predominance of plains, open for the penetration of both cold Arctic air and warm from Central Asia.
The average January temperature is -29 ° C, July: + 18 ° C. In the central part of the region, January temperature is: -23 ° С, July: + 16-18 ° С; in the south -19-17 ° C in January, + 19 ° C in July. Precipitation falls from 200 to 600 mm per year.
Permafrost is widespread in the north. The growing season is 50-162 days.
Relief: The region occupies most of the West Siberian Plain. In the west, within the region, are the eastern slopes of the Northern, Subpolar (height up to 1895 m, Mount Narodnaya) and the Polar Urals. The plain part is very boggy, with a large number of lakes.
Soils: the most typical for the region are soddy-slightly podzolic; gray forest salted; dark gray forest malt gley; floodplain meadow; meadow-chernozem solodized; meadow-marsh.
In general, the region is characterized by the frequent change of heterogeneous soils in a limited space. This is most pronounced in the forest-steppe zone.
The most important feature of the soils of the forest-steppe of the Tyumen region is salinity. Zonal chernozem soils include meadow solonetzes, soddy solonetzes, meadow solonchaks, meadow-bog soils, etc. The share of these soils in the complexes can reach 30-50%. The soils of the floodplains of river valleys are also very complex. Floodplain soils are widespread - meadow, meadow-layered and meadow alluvial.
Agricultural land area: 2 920,7 thous. Ha.
The Tyumen region is characterized by harsh climatic conditions, but at the same time, they can successfully grow potatoes and fully provide the population of the region with food.
Potato production in the region is carried out by 97 agricultural enterprises. They receive about 40% of the total product grown in the region. The annual gross harvest of potatoes in the industrial sector is more than 200 thousand tons.
So, in 2018, 8 923 ha of potatoes were planted, 238,9 thousand tons of gross harvest were obtained with a yield of 268 ha.
For comparison: in 2017, the planted area was at the level of 8,7 thousand ha, 231,4 thousand tons were harvested with an average yield of 262,7 kg / ha. In 2016, potatoes in the industrial sector were grown on 9,6 thousand ha, gross harvest amounted to 185,1 thousand tons, average yield: 194 kg / ha.
The most common varieties cultivated in the region are: Rosara, Red Scarlett, Gala, Evolution, Impala, Tuleevsky, Brook, etc.
The largest potato producers in the region are Agrofirm KRiMM LLC, Peasant Farm Druzhba LLC, Yasen-Agro LLC. All of them work according to modern high-tech methods, which allow to obtain the highest yields in the Urals Federal District.
In 2019, Tyumen agricultural producers planted potatoes on an area of about 8 hectares. The main areas of cultivation: Armizonsky, Nizhnetavdinsky, Tyumensky, Uporovsky, Yurginsky, Yalutorovsky, Yarkovsky, as well as Golyshmanovsky and Zavodoukovsky urban districts. Harvesting began in the first ten days of August (by the time the article was prepared - 600/6.08.19/40 - potatoes were harvested from 374 hectares. With a yield of XNUMX centners per hectare, the gross harvest amounted to about XNUMX tons).
The resulting crop is sold on the territory of the region (for intraregional consumption 130-135 thousand tons are needed), and also supplied to neighbors (to the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Yugra, to the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk regions). Exports are also carried out to Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan.
With the participation of the regional budget funds, several potato storages were erected in the region, equipped with modern means of automatically maintaining the necessary storage parameters. The material and technical base of enterprises specializing in the cultivation and storage of potatoes was modernized. Existing agricultural machines and tractors were replaced by more reliable and high-performance ones. The use of manual labor is minimized.
Potato support in the region is also carried out in the form of partial reimbursement of expenses for the purchase of elite seed material, as well as compensation for part of the costs of liming and phosphorizing of acidic soils intended for planting potatoes.
SELECTION AND SEEDING
Potato breeding in the region is carried out by scientists from the GAU of the Northern Trans-Urals and the Scientific Research Institute of Agricultural Sciences of the Northern Trans-Urals. In the list of recent achievements, one can note a variety named after the scout Nikolai Kuznetsov, created in 2016 by breeders of an agricultural university. This potato is perfectly adapted to Siberian conditions and gives a good harvest both in conditions of drought and in the period of waterlogging; the variety is resistant to many diseases, stands out for its excellent taste and does not darken after cleaning, whether raw or boiled.
The Agrarian University has a potato selection laboratory. Since 2018, its specialists have been taking part in a comprehensive scientific and technical project: "Breeding, seed production and processing of competitive domestic varieties of potatoes in the Tyumen region" together with the customer of the project - LLC "Agrofirma KRiMM". Today, the project participants are faced with the task of creating and bringing to the market two new varieties of local selection of potatoes. The project will be completed until 2025.
It should be noted that this is not the first experience of participation in breeding work for the agricultural firm "KRiMM". The company's specialists together with UralNI-IKH (breeder - Doctor of Agricultural Sciences E.P. Shanina) have created several varieties of potatoes (Lux, Otrada, Bravo, Mishka, Miner), which are included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements.
Agrofirm “KRiMM” also deals with primary seed production, has its own laboratory for the production of virus-free seed potatoes on a meristem basis. The company is one of the three leaders in Russia in terms of seed potato production. The agricultural company delivers seed material both to the farms of the region and to other regions: from Krasnodar to Khabarovsk, as well as to neighboring countries.
Much attention is paid to the development of seed production and other farms of the region. Among them, the peasant farm "Friendship", conducting seed work in close contact with the Agrotechnological Institute of the GAU of Northern Trans-Urals. An experimental field has been created at the farm, joint breeding work is underway, new varieties are being studied.
This year, a potato processing plant built by Agrofirm KRiMM LLC will be commissioned in the Tyumen region. This is one of the largest investment projects in the region, it is implemented with the support of the regional government and the administration of the Uporovsky district.
The planned capacity of the enterprise is 30 thousand tons of raw materials per year. To provide production with raw materials, the agricultural holding increased the area of potato cultivation.
The plant will specialize in the production of products innovative for the Russian market: pasteurized half-cooked potatoes with natural additives, as well as fresh, peeled, vacuum cut fresh cut potatoes. Packing of 400 grams, two and a half and five kilograms will allow the use of semi-finished products both in the home kitchen and in catering establishments, including in canteens of schools and kindergartens. It is planned that over the year the company will produce 15 tons of finished products.
At the moment, commissioning is underway at the plant.
Large-scale reclamation work on the territory of the Tyumen region began in the 50s of the last century. By 1992, more than 120 reclamation systems had been built and restored in the region. The area of irrigated farmland was 12,4 thousand hectares, drained land - 92,4 thousand hectares. Then came a long period of recession.
By 2014, the area of irrigated land in the Tyumen region was 3 hectares, which is about 910% of all plantings of potatoes and vegetables belonging to agricultural organizations, individual entrepreneurs and peasant farms. At the same time, the degree of deterioration of reclamation systems in most territories exceeded 37%.
The region, which is actively developing agriculture, faced the question of the need to restore drainage and irrigation systems.
The federal target program “Development of Land Reclamation of Agricultural Land of Russia for 2014-2020” helps today to alleviate the problem. and the regional program for the development of land reclamation in the Tyumen region, which has been operating since 2016.
Using the federal target program in the region, the Kukushkinskaya drainage system for 2 thousand hectares was put into operation; according to the regional program, irrigation systems were installed on an area of more than 800 hectares in the KRiMM agricultural firm. The source of water for the new irrigated lands is the reservoir on the Chernaya River, which was built earlier.
In the Tyumen region, there are seven main participants in the agricultural education chain: it is the State Agrarian University and six agricultural technical colleges: Tobolsk and Ishim multidisciplinary colleges, Golyshmanovsky agro-pedagogical college, agrotechnological college of Yalutorovsk, Tyumen forestry college and Zavodoukovsky agroindustrial.
The State Agrarian University of the Northern Trans-Urals is a regional center for educational activity, scientific support and the production of high-tech products in the agricultural sector.
More than 4500 students and students are studying at the university in full-time, part-time and part-time forms of study at five institutes:
- Agricultural Technology Institute (ATI)
- Institute of Mechanics and Technology (MIT)
- Institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine (IB and BM)
- Institute of Distance Education (IDO)
- Institute for Advanced Studies and Retraining of Personnel (IPC and PC)
University students undergo practical training and study at such leading enterprises as the Yubileiny breeding farm, the KRiMM agricultural firm, and Evika-Agro.
In 2011, in the Uporovsky district of the Tyumen region, local farmers erected a monument to potatoes of the Zekura variety. The monument is a two-meter potato. A monument to the uporovskaya agrofirm “KRiMM” was erected.
The material was prepared by the Department of agro-industrial complex of the Tyumen region