Several common myths about biological products for plant protection will be dispelled by an expert in his field - the director and founder of the innovative company MIKOPRO Anna Sergeevna Mishina.
Information: The company MIKOPRO was founded in 2013 with the aim of bringing to the market scientific developments of the FBSI SSC VB "Vector" of the Koltsovo science city and conducting its own developments in the field of agriculture.
Myth: Biologics are not effective in controlling pests and diseases.
Reality: Biologicals do not induce resistance (addiction) in the pest, kill (suppress) the pest or disease, improve and enrich the soil.
In my work, I often come across the opinion that biological drugs are not able to effectively fight pests and diseases. In the fight against diseases or pests, in particular, nematodes, it is necessary to accurately diagnose the problem and the level of infestation. At present, independent laboratories operate on the basis of many institutes that can do high-quality analysis of soil and plant samples.
Consider the example of infection of tubers or a field with a nematode. The agronomist in the field cannot always accurately diagnose the problem: it is not difficult to miss the moment of the nematode spread, since at the initial stages the signs in the field are often not visible; when a tuber is damaged by a nematode, other diseases (bacterial and fungal) develop, and as a result, the fight is not with the "root cause", which only enhances the spread of the pest. If the soil is heavily infested with a nematode, the fight against it can take several years. And this is where the opinion is born that biology is completely ineffective. However, it's like with a high temperature - half of the people drink antibiotics (in our case, chemical preparations are used), the other half does with other means (biological preparations), which are based on the natural mechanism of combating the disease. In case of severe infection in both cases, it is necessary to use increased rates of drugs. But! It should be understood that after the use of "antibiotics", especially with an increased dosage, the body (soil) needs treatment (recovery).
Biological preparations are based on effective strains of microorganisms, which in the process of work enrich the soil with useful substances. For example, predatory fungi, which are the basis of the drug against nematode, in the course of their life, release compounds into the soil that convert phosphates into a species digestible for the plant, thereby not only improving the soil, but also giving a certain stimulation of plant growth and increasing protective immunity. ... For example, predatory fungi in the basis of the drug against nematode (approx. nematophageal fungi of the genus Arthrobotrys and Duddingtonia - an innovative patented development with the participation of scientists from the FBSI SSC VB "Vector"), in the process of vital activity, compounds are released into the soil, converting phosphates into a form digestible for the plant, which stimulates growth, increases protective immunity.
The use of biological preparations (we are talking about those that we produce) does not harm the plant, but, on the contrary, improves the microbiota around the plant, provides more effective protection. If we talk about chemical preparations: if the norms of a chemical substance are not enough to fight a pest or a disease, they act on the pest like a "graft" - they only enhance the protective functions of the pest and form resistance. Then it will be even more difficult to deal with such a "reinforced" pest.
Myth: Biologics can be easily made on your own, with enough capacity and nutrient medium.
Reality: Biotechnology is a science based on many years of research by scientists.
Probably everyone has heard of preparations based on the Trichoderm mushroom. The most famous mushroom that almost every farmer tries to reproduce. There are many species and strains of fungi of the genus Trichoderma: for example, the Lignorum species does an excellent job with the decomposition of plant debris, but is unlikely to provide tangible help in the fight against diseases. Harzianum, on the other hand, actively acts against fungal and bacterial diseases, suppresses phytopathogenic fungi in the initial period of their impact, without disrupting plant growth.
Biological products are based on selected strains of microorganisms, consortia of which are specially selected, removed, etc. With the wrong reproduction of the strain, its properties are lost, and the efficiency of work decreases. High-quality biology is not just a liquid dispersed in a "barrel with a nutrient medium".
Myth # 3: The use of biological products is a complex process, for them to work, many conditions must be met.
Reality: The most important thing is to choose a drug that matches the diagnosis and purchase it from a trusted manufacturer.
As a rule, the use of biological products does not cause any particular difficulties, however, there is an important rule that is often neglected - carefully read the instructions for use, observe the conditions for the introduction and storage of drugs. The basis of biological preparations is microorganisms that live, develop, and work under certain conditions. For example, mushrooms love moisture, respectively, after application, watering is mandatory (if possible), then conditions for the rapid development and protection of plants will be created for the fungus. If we are talking about soil insecticides that work against larvae and adults of the May, Colorado potato beetle, wireworm and other insects, then for reliable protection they must be introduced into the soil during planting at the root depth. Then the mushrooms reliably protect the area around the plant root from pests, form a beneficial microbiota, additionally nourish the plant, and stimulate growth.
Now on the market there are many developments of biological remedies, and there are very effective remedies that are not inferior to, and sometimes even surpass, chemical remedies in terms of the achieved result. If we are talking about long-term work in the field, then biologics are the leader here. It is important that biological plant protection products can be included in complex field protection schemes together with chemical preparations.
I would like to note that high-quality diagnostics and analysis (of soil, seed material) can help solve many problems and avoid unnecessary waste in the plant protection system, as well as save the harvest, due to the exclusion of such a scenario in which unsuccessful searches for suitable drugs without proper diagnostics do not bring results , and the losses become too significant, sometimes, as with a strong nematode infestation, reaching 90-100% of the yield.