Specialists of the Krasnoyarsk branch of the Federal State Budgetary Institution "Rosselkhoztsentr" have been helping the agricultural producers of the region determine the need for plants in macro- and microelements for four years using the functional express laboratory "Aquadonis". This method is becoming increasingly popular, since timely top dressing is important for the growth and development of all crops. The stock of minerals in the soil is insufficient, and the introduction of the necessary fertilizers helps to fill the deficiency of important nutrients necessary for the growth, development, flowering and fruiting of agricultural crops. plants. Thanks to nutrients, plant resistance to bacterial and fungal diseases increases, adaptive properties to adverse environmental factors (drought, increase or decrease in temperature) increase.
In 2022, leaf diagnostics was carried out in 27 farms in seven districts of the region (Karatuzsky, Krasnoturansky, Kuraginsky, Minusinsky, Uzhursky, Sharypovsky, Shushensky) on an area of 35,04 thousand hectares. The following crops were examined: winter rye, winter and spring wheat, barley, oats, peas, rapeseed, corn, soybeans, buckwheat, flax, clover, sunflower, alfalfa. In the current year, the main share of the studied samples were spring cereals - 56%, spring rapeseed - 14% and corn - 8%.
As a result of the diagnostics, it was determined which elements are necessary for the plant to develop in different phases of its growth. Spring grain crops experience the main shortage of mineral fertilizers at the initial stage in the tillering phase (Fig. 1). At this time, crops absorb more than 40% of nitrogen, as well as phosphorus, which contributes to the growth of the root system, the formation of a large ear, and earlier maturation of plants. With its deficiency, plants absorb nitrogen and potassium worse. The critical period for phosphorus and potassium is the initial period of growth, with their lack, the yield decreases by 20–30%. As culture develops, the need for basic nutrients gradually decreases.
These studies are carried out as part of phytosanitary monitoring and allow for a comprehensive assessment of the state of crops. Based on the research results, agricultural producers were given recommendations on foliar top dressing.